Lift forces are perpendicular to the direction of the flow and the main physical mechanism in determining the distribution of particles in a vertical tube. For upward flows in a pipe, the bubbles are pushed to the sides of the walls. For the simultaneous downward flows in a pipe, both the lifting forces and the lubricating force of the wall are applied in the opposite direction, which also causes a decrease in the variation in the middle of the pipe.
The lifting force on particles, droplets, and bubbles in a shear flow is due to symmetric vortices, as well as the geometric asymmetry of particles.
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