The shape of liquid droplets and bubbles can change due to fluid forces and collisions. This deformation can be broken down into smaller particles by combining it into larger particles. For example, the following can be noted:
- Decomposition of liquid droplets in a nozzle spray in the presence of turbulent flow in a continuous gas phase.
- Collisions of two small bubbles, resulting in the formation of a larger bubble
- Breaking gas or liquid bubbles in a region with a high shear stress near the blade of a stirrer tank
Breaking and mixing droplets can occur at smaller scales than the size of the computational grid. In this case, we can use two MUSIG models for the Eulerian phase and a particle defect model for the Lagrangian spreading phase to simulate. If the breaking and composition of droplets occur on the grid scale and the effects of surface tension are also considered, each bubble or droplet can use a fracture model or a combination of its own.
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