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Particle tracking by advanced Lagrangian method

In addition to lift force, dragging and floating forces, other forces can also effect on the particles, depending on the conditions. These forces include electrostatic force, magnetic, thermophoric, Van der Waals adhesion, drag and lift near the wall. Electrostatic forces are important when particles are inseminated and placed in an electric field. They use a magnetic field to separate metals, which causes electromagnetic forces to effect on the particles. The thermophoric force is due to the presence of a temperature gradient in the range of the domain. This force is important in MHD applications and plasma flows. In non-homogeneous flows and at low distances from the wall (y <5dp), the drag and lift forces increase. Other forces can also be added to the software by the user in Fortran programming language. In continuous mode, particles are tracked from start to finish. All particles are injected at a time, and particles with unilateral couplings are dissolved at the end of the simulation. Particles with complete coupling are resolved in a repeated period determined by the user. In the steady state, the two parameters of the particle motion time and particle time are identical. In the non-particle mode, particles are traced at each step, and then the particles must be detected from the beginning. At a certain time, a certain amount of particles is injected. At the end of each step, the particles are solved with one-way coupling, and the particles with full coupling are resolved with the parameter of the interval distance of the loop, which is determined by the user. For non-permanent particles, the two parameters of the particle motion time and particle time are different. To obtain the particle path and solving equations for non-parametric particles, we take the real time step for integral particles.

 

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