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Standard Wall Function
If the k-epsilon turbulence model is used for the simulation, it is not possible to simulate flow vortex near the walls, a wall function must be defined to investigate the fluid behavior near the wall. These wall functions are near-wall analytical flow profiles obtained by explicitly solving the near-wall flow equations; hence, they are more accurate than numerical methods (in simpler models). Also, because of the need for no accurate mesh near the wall, they greatly reduce the computational time. It should be noted that when using the k-epsilon model, due to the lack of accurate mesh near the walls, it is necessary to check the wall functions using Y-Plus (Y+). The suitable Y+ should be between 30 and 300 for the standard model.
Enhanced Wall Function
When the k-epsilon turbulence model is used and it is not feasible to simulate flow vortices near the walls, a function of the wall must be defined to investigate the fluid behavior near the wall. These wall functions are near-wall analytical flow profiles obtained by explicitly solving the near-wall flow equations; hence, they are better than numerical methods and also due to the lack of the need for accurate mesh near the wall, they greatly reduce the computational cost. It should be noted that when using the k-epsilon model, due to the lack of meshing near the walls, it is necessary to check the wall functions using Y+ so that in enhanced mode the appropriate value for Y+ must be about 1. The enhanced wall function is mainly suitable for low Reynolds number and finer grid models.
The simulations that are related to the external flow, apply the K-Omega SST model. This model of k-omega operates as a hybrid function, which results in a gradual transfer of flow from the k-omega model for near-wall regions to the k-epsilon model in areas beyond the boundary layer. This model is used for reverse pressure gradient flows and in airfoil simulations. Since the wall function does not define in the k-omega model, finer grids should be used in areas close to the airfoil walls. However, in this turbulence model, the probability of divergence increases due to the transition from one model to another.
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