MR-CFD experts are ready for Turbomachinery analysis, consulting, training, and CFD simulation.
All equipment that is continuously powered or energized by a rotating component dynamically is called a turbomachine. The word turbo is derived from the Latin root and means to rotate. The rotor blades or rotor wheels change the enthalpy (the amount of system heat at constant pressure) of the fluid passing through it, either positively or negatively.
One of the most common practical engineering applications of fluid mechanics is the design of turbomachines and turbomachinery. Turbomachines are the hearts of industries. Some types of turbomachines add energy to the fluids like pumps and compressors while others extract energy from fluids like turbines.
Pumps and turbines have lots of different types due to their applications; however, the most popular ones in the industry are axial and centrifugal. Optimization of turbomachines is of great importance in the industry as they consume a large amount of energy and therefore better performance of turbomachines reduces energy consumption and finally will help us to have a cleaner environment.
CFD simulation of turbomachines will lead to improvement of design and better efficiency. For instance, we can achieve better design of pumps and compressors, turbochargers, steam and hydro turbines, blade design, etc. Mr CFD Company will help you to optimize the design of turbomachines to increase the efficiency.
The turbine is a rotating mechanical device for generating mechanical energy using fluid thermal energy. In fact, the turbine structure consists of a rotating axial section and several rows of blades. The fluid with thermal energy and high pressure hits the blades of the turbine and causes the turbine to rotate so that the fluid pressure drops after the collision with the blades, and converts the heat energy of the fluid into kinetic energy in the blades and the central shaft of the turbine. This central axis is also connected to the power generator axis and causes it to rotate, resulting in power generation. Types of turbines include steam turbines (for generating electricity in thermal power plants), gas turbines (consisting of a fan, compressor and combustion chamber), water turbine (as a conversion of the kinetic energy of running water or potential energy due to a level difference to rotational energy), and wind turbine (to convert the kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy).
A large category of turbomachines is called turbines. They are classified as gas, steam, wind, and water (tidal) types. The main components of a turbine are:
– The rotary section which consists of axes, discs and moving blades.
– The stationary consists of a body or a shell and stationary blades. The stationary blades are mounted on the stator shell and adjust the flow direction of the fluid in order to exchange full energy upon arrival the rotary section.
The mechanical energy generated in the rotary axis is transmitted through a connection to the generator axis. As a result of mechanical energy to the generator axis, electricity is generated at a frequency equal to the frequency of the turbine’s rotation and transmitted through high-pressure cables.
The turbine is a rotating mechanical device that takes energy from the fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The structure of the turbines consists of two main parts: a rotor and a set of blades. Types of turbines include steam turbines, gas turbines, wind turbines, and hydro (water or tidal) turbines.
Water (Tidal) Turbine
Water turbines are turbomachines that convert the kinetic energy of the water flow or the potential energy of the water altitude difference into a circular motion. In fact, two factors of water flow velocity and water pressure head are two important factors for energy generation in hydro turbines. Water turbines are divided into three general categories according to the type of water flow: Kaplan turbines whose water flow is along the length of the turbine, Radial flow turbines (Francis) that flow The water is in the radius of the turbine, and the tangential flow turbines (Pelton) are the water flowing in a tangential direction to the turbine.
The different types of turbines are as follows:
A. Axial Turbine: The parallel water enters the axis of the turbine and exits in the same direction.
B – Transverse turbine: Water enters the perpendicular axis of the turbine and exits perpendicular to it.
C – Centrifugal turbine: This is a transverse turbine in which the water within it gradually moves away from the axis.
D – Radial Inflow Turbine: This is a transverse turbine in which water approaches the center.
E – Radial Axial turbine: Water enters the perpendicular to the axis and drains almost parallel to the turbine.
Wind turbines are machines that convert wind energy into electrical energy. Turbine construction consists of three main parts, including the tower (with all components mounted), the rotor and the blades or rotating blades attached to it, and the protective cover (including control system, gearbox, generator, and shafts). The way the blades are designed in wind turbines is to rotate with the wind. The rotation of the blades causes the rotor of the turbine to rotate, and as a result, the torque applied to the blades rapidly rotates in the turbine gearbox, thus converting mechanical energy into electrical energy by the generator.
HAWT & VAWT
We can divide wind turbines into two general categories based on the axis of rotation. The Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) and the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The horizontal axis wind turbine has a rotational axis parallel to the wind direction. While the vertical wind turbine has a rotational axis perpendicular to the wind direction. Horizontal turbines are capable of operating at high altitudes at high wind speeds and are more efficient due to their direct exposure to the wind direction. While vertical turbines are capable of working at lower altitudes with lower efficiency. Airflow introduces two types of aerodynamic forces on each surface, including drag force and lift force. The drag force is parallel to the direction of flow over the surface. While the lift force is perpendicular to the wind flow. The main cause of wind turbine blades rotation is the presence of either of these forces or the application of both forces. The cross-section shape of the blades of the turbine is an airfoil. The airfoil-shaped structure causes the wind flow velocity to vary between the upper and lower blade surfaces and thereby cause the pressure difference in the blades to rotate the blades.
The compressor is a mechanical device for compressing gas flow. Due to the compressibility of the gases, the compressors increase the pressure of the gas flow by compressing it and thus increasing its temperature. Therefore, compressors cause the gas to move through by increasing the gas pressure. Gas compressors have applications such as gas transmission inside pipes, heat transfer in refrigeration systems, compression of incoming air to gas turbines, pressurized aircraft cabins, and so on. Gas compressors are divided into several types, including centrifugal compressors, mixed-flow compressors, axial-flow compressors, scroll compressors, diaphragm compressors, and reciprocating compressors. The axial flow compressor uses a fan-shaped rotating blade to compress the gas flow. The construction of this type of compressor includes several rows of blades, including two types of fixed blades (stator) on the inner wall of the compressor chamber and rotating blades (rotor) on the central rotating shaft of the compressor, so that the angle of fixed blades and the rotating blades, as well as reducing the cross-sectional area of the Hub required for airflow along the compressor shaft, increases the airflow pressure. The figure below shows a view of a central current compressor.
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