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Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a set of processes used to control the temperature, humidity, and ambient air quality of an existing environment. The purpose of designing a HVAC system is to provide the comfort of the people in the desired environment or to create the appropriate environment for a specific purpose. The design of the HVAC system is based on the principles of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer.

Air conditioners are of various types and have many uses in residential homes, office buildings, libraries, amphitheaters, hospitals, dining halls and more.

Factors Affecting HVAC

HVAC regulates or stabilizes various factors in airflow, including temperature, air humidity, air velocity, air purification of dust particles and air filtering, microbial disinfection (air sterilization) and removing unpleasant odors and toxic gases in the air.

Types of HVAC Based on the Temperature

–          Heating systems are used to reduce ambient temperatures in the cold seasons, including central heating systems such as hot water boilers or wall packs (radiator) and other non-central heating systems such as heaters and fireplaces.

–          Cooling system is used to raise the temperature in hot seasons, including water coolers, splits, and so on.

–          Integrated systems consist of two cooling and heating air conditioners which are suitable for two-season zones including chillers, fan-coils, and air conditioners. An integrated set of cooling and heating and ventilation systems is called HVAC (heating, ventilation, air condition).

Types of Processes in HVACs

– The heating process means adding heat energy to the environment to increase the temperature.

– The cooling process means the removal of heat energy from the environment to decrease the temperature.

– The humidification process means adding water vapor (humidity) to the environment to increase humidity.

– The humidification process means removing water vapor (humidity) to the environment to reduce humidity.

– The refining process means the removal of particles such as dust and biological contaminants such as insects to improve air quality.

– The ventilation process means the process of exchanging air between the outside environment and the indoor ventilated space to dilute gaseous pollutants in the air to improve the quality of the ventilation air, including both natural (due to buoyancy effect) and force (due to external mechanical factor) ventilation.

– The air ventilation process means the continuous circulation and mixing of indoor airflow by air-conditioned space for the purpose of air conditioning.

Application of HVACs

Air conditioning systems are used in a number of applications, such as residential homes, hospital operating rooms, wood and fiber art storage, frozen storage, and more.

Solar Chimney for HVAC

Today, due to the problems caused by fossil fuel consumption, such as increased air pollution, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and limited resources, the world is using new energy sources such as solar energy, waves, hydrostatics, wind energy, and ground heating. Solar energy is one of the cleanest and most available sources of electricity on earth, especially in areas with high annual radiation from the sun’s rays. One way to harness solar energy is to use solar chimneys. The basis of work in a solar chimney is the density difference due to the increase in temperature inside the solar panels, which acts as a driving force. In the building of a solar chimney, there is a transparent roof (usually made of glass) that can absorb the energy of solar radiation. The air flowing into the chimney heats up by receiving the heat from the roofs and rises due to the decrease in density due to the increase in temperature and as a result of lightning, and in fact, the flow of hot air sucks into the solar chimney. In general, these chimneys are divided into two categories. The first category is electrically generated chimneys that have an industrial scale; their function is to place one or more wind turbines in the direction of the upward movement of hot air, which receives the energy from the suction flow. Heat generates significant mechanical energy and then converts mechanical energy into electrical energy using a generator. The second category is ventilation and heating chimneys that are used on a residential scale; their function is to create a buoyancy force and suction of hot air upwards. Hot air absorbs from the lower part inside the building and exits the upper part of the chimney, which causes cooling inside the building, and also, if the upper part of the chimney is closed, the hot flow can be introduced into the building by installing a fan. This type is used for heating inside the building. Some residential solar chimneys are used vertically and attached to the wall of the building and receive the heat of solar energy from the plates used on the ground next to the building, and some other solar chimneys are sloping. It is located on the roof of the building and at the right angle to the direction of sunlight, it can receive its thermal energy. The following figure shows a schematic of a sloping roof solar chimney.



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