Evaporation and Condensation inside the Desalination System, CFD Simulation ANSYS Fluent Training


In this project, Evaporation and Condensation inside the Desalination System using the multiphase VOF model have been simulated, and the results of this simulation have been investigated.

This product includes Geometry & Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.
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Evaporation and Condensation inside the Desalination System Description

The present simulation is about the evaporation and condensation inside the desalination system via ANSYS Fluent. This desalination system is a two-stage type, and the evaporation and condensation take place in the upper and lower parts.

The desalination mechanism in these two parts of the system is that impure water evaporates and turns into steam when it receives heat from the system’s floor. The hot steam then contacts the cold surface above it, and as a result, the condensation and the production of pure water occur.

These cold surfaces have a slope so that condensed water slides and is directed to the system outlet. Impure water initially has a temperature of 300 K and is at a certain height from each of the stages of the system.

The floor surface of the system has a temperature of 353 K, which causes heat transfer and evaporation. In this simulation, the VOF (Volume of Fluid) multiphase model defines several different fluids within the system.

Water, vapor, and air are the three main phases of the desired multiphase flow. Also, the mechanism of mass transfer between water and steam must be defined so that depending on the temperature and pressure of the internal space of the system, the evaporation (from water to vapor) or the condensation (from vapor to water) occurs. A UDF (user-defined function) defines the mass transfer process.

Geometry & Mesh

The present geometry is designed in a 3D model via Design Modeler. The computational zone of the model is related to the interior of two stages of the desalination system. On each stage, a sloping condenser plate, a sloping tray, and an outlet are designed. Also, a part of each stage is designed separately to define the initial water level.


The mesh of the present model has been done via ANSYS Meshing. Mesh is done unstructured, and the number of production cells equals 1936581.


Assumptions used in this simulation:

  • Pressure-based solver is used.
  • The present simulation is unsteady.
  • Gravitational acceleration is equal to 9.81 m.s-2.


Multiphase Model VOF (volume of fluid)
number of eulerian phases 3 (air, water, vapor)
interface modeling sharp
mass transfer between water and vapor
Viscous k-epsilon
k-epsilon model realizable
near wall treatment standard wall treatment
Energy On
Boundary conditions
Bottom Wall Wall
wall motion stationary wall
temperature 353.15
Inner Wall (tray 1&2 and condenser 1) Wall
wall motion stationary wall
thermal condition coupled
Outer Wall (stage 1&2 and condenser 2) Wall
wall motion stationary wall
heat flux 0 W.m-2
Outlet Pressure Outlet
gauge pressure 0 pascal
Pressure and Velocity Coupling Coupled
pressure PRESTO
momentum first order upwind
volume fraction compressive
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
energy second order upwind
Initialization methods standard
gauge pressure 0 pascal
velocity 0 m.s-1
air volume fraction 1 (patch: water = 1)
temperature 300 K

Evaporation and Condensation inside the Desalination System Results

After calculation, 3D and 2D contours related to temperature, pressure, velocity, and volume fraction of air, water, and vapor are obtained. The contours show that water is up to one level from each stage and evaporates as heat is received from the system’s floor and steam is gradually produced.

You can obtain Geometry & Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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