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Facade HVAC CFD Simulation

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The present problem simulates the airflow through the space between the two walls of the double facade of the building considering solar radiation.


This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Facade Project Description

The present problem simulates the airflow through the space between the two walls of the double facade of the building. To move the airflow upwards in this space based on the density changes caused by the pressure and temperature changes, the boundary condition of the pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure at the inlet and outlet of this space has been used. The main cause of temperature changes is the presence of solar energy on the plates of these shells; therefore, the radiation energy model of Discrete Ordinates (DO) and the solar ray tracing model have been used.

It is also assumed that the ambient airflow around the shells has a temperature of 300 K and a heat transfer coefficient of 10 W.m-2.K-1. Also, in the space between these two walls, a shutter-shaped shading is used, which helps the ventilation process in the system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of fluid flow in an upward motion and heat transfer in space between two shells and between shading plates.

Geometry & Mesh

The geometry of the present model is three-dimensional and is drawn using Design Modeler software. The geometry consists of a rectangular cube chamber and several rows of shutter-like plates called shading. The compartment has dimensions of 3 meters, 1.5 meters, and 0.2 meters. Shading plates also have a thin thickness with a slope of 45 degrees and are located in 120 rows. The figure below shows an overview of the model’s geometry.


The meshing of the present model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is unstructured and the element number is 4264442. The figure below shows a view of the mesh.


CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered, which are:

  • The simulation is based on the Pressure-Based solver.
  • Simulation has studied fluid behavior and heat transfer.
  • The simulation is Steady-State.
  • The effect of gravity on the flow is considered equal to -9.81 m/s2.

The following is a summary of the steps for defining the problem and its solution:

Models (facade)
k-epsilonViscous model
standardk-epsilon model
standard wall functionnear-wall treatment
Boundary conditions (facade)
0 pascalgauge pressure
1Internal emissivity
activeparticipate s in solar ray tracing
Pressure outlet(facade)Outlet
0 pascalgauge pressure
1Internal emissivity
activeparticipate s in solar ray tracing
wallOuter walls
stationary wallwall motion
1Internal emissivity
300 Kfree stream temperature for convection
10 W.m-2.K-1heat transfer coefficient for convection
semi-transparentBC type(facade)
activeparticipate s in solar ray tracing
wallslat walls
stationary wallwall motion
1Internal emissivity
0 W.m-2heat flux
activeparticipate s in solar ray tracing
Solution Methods (facade)
SIMPLE Pressure-velocity coupling
Second-orderpressureSpatial discretization
first-order upwindmomentum
second upwindturbulent dissipation rate
second-order upwindturbulent kinetic energy
first-order upwindenergy
first-order upwinddiscrete ordinates
Initialization (facade)
StandardInitialization method
0 m.s-1velocity (x,y,z)
0 pascalgauge pressure
300 Ktemperature

Facade Results

At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to pressure and velocity and temperature, as well as two-dimensional and three-dimensional pathlines were obtained. The two-dimensional contours are drawn in the XY section and in the middle of the space between the two shells.

Facade Validation

The diagram of the velocity distribution in the XZ section of the model is plotted at a height of 2 m from the floor of the model in the line passing through the center of the geometry and in line with the x-axis between -0.1 and +0.1. The geometric model has an angle of 45 degrees.



All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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