Solidification and Melting

MR-CFD experts are ready for Solidification & Melting analysis, consulting, training, and CFD simulation.

Solidification and Melting

meltingThe process of solidification and melting has various applications in industrial projects and nature. Also in heating and cooling of building. Including icing water, heating of phase change material and in consequence melting and storage energy, metal industries, etc.

All of the materials have a point that on that temperature, by increase heating, the material starts to melt and if the material is liquid by starting the cooling the material starts to solidification. This is not just an exact point and is a range with maximum and minimum temperatures. The name of minimum point is solidus point, because if the temperature decrease from this point material starts to solidification. The name of maximum temperature point for this range is liquidus and by increasing temperature from this point material start to melt. In addition, between this range material act like plastic and is not completely fluid or solid.pcm

We have several experiences in area of solidification and melting in various applications of buildings and industries. In the following you can see a brief title of our work in this filed.

·       Effect of using phase change material in the solar collector for storing energy

·       Using PCM to heating and cooling of a building

·       Simulation of heat exchanger for storing thermal energy with material rt82pcm

·       Simulation of heat transfer in a solar water heater tank using phase-change material (PCM)

There are various ways to define the phase change process in Fluent software. To define the phase change from gas to liquid or liquid to gas, we use multi-phase models and the mass transfer process between two phases. To define the phase change from gas to solid, we use a discrete phase model; and finally, we use the Solidification & Melting model to define the phase change from liquid to solid and vice versa.

This technique uses the Porosity-Enthalpy formulation technique to fully track the liquid-solid, rather than explicitly tracking the solid-liquid boundary. In a liquid-solid area, a Mushy Zone is formed that behaves like a porous medium, such that the porosity of the medium is equal to the volume fraction of the liquid. Also, in the momentum equations, a Sink term appears as a determinant of the pressure drop caused by the presence of a solid (either a decrease in porosity or a reduction in the volume fraction of the liquid in a solid region).

To use the Solidification & Melting module, the maximum temperature where only the solid phase is dominant (T_solidus), the minimum temperature where only the liquid phase is dominant (T_liquidus) and the Pure Solvent Melting Heat should be defined for the model.


The thermal energy is stored in the materials in two ways:
1- Sensible Heat:
When in a constant phase, the temperature of the material increases with the receiving heat.
2- Latent Heat:
When the material is at a constant temperature, heat is received, the phase changes.
Phase change materials (PCM) are substances with inorganic or organic compounds that can absorb and store a large amount of latent heat energy. Thermal energy storage in these materials is obtained during the process of the phase change (solid phase to liquid) so that when the phase changes from solid to liquid, it absorbs heat from the environment. When the liquid-to-solid phase change happens, it returns heat to the environment. Of course, latent heat in phase change materials is obtained from the three solid-solid, solid-liquid and solid-gas phase modes, but since in solid-gas state, much heat or pressure is required and in the solid-solid state, the process is very slow, so most of the phase change materials are in the solid-liquid state. These PCMs have a variety of melting or solidification temperatures and are therefore used in cooling and heating systems; for example, these materials absorb the solar heat on hot days. The latent heat is absorbed and then returned to the environment again in the cool night, by the phase changing and the solidification process.

pcmMr CFD


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