Clean Water Engineering

Project Outsourcing

Outsource your project to the MR CFD simulation engineering team. Our experts are ready to carry out every CFD project in all related engineering fields. Our services include industrial and academic purposes, considering the ANSYS Fluent software's wide range of CFD simulations. By outsourcing your project, you can benefit from MR CFD's primary services, including Consultation, Training, and CFD Simulation. The project freelancing procedure is as follows:

1

An official contract will be set based on your project description and details.

2

As we start your project, you will have access to our Portal to track its progress.

3

You will receive the project's resource files after you confirm the final report.

4

Finally, you will receive a comprehensive training video and technical support.

What is Clean Water Engineering?

Today, the lack of clean water resources worldwide is the most important human challenge. In general, less than 3% of the world’s water resources are clean water. Population growth and excessive increase in household water consumption, increase in water consumption in industry, increase in water consumption in agriculture, etc., are the factors that reduce the available water resources in the world.

The increase in industrial activities, the growth of greenhouse gases, the increase in air pollution, and finally, the overheating of the earth are also factors that reduce the possibility of water compensation in the cycle of nature through rainfall.

So, water desalination is one of the most important issues in the world. Water desalination is not a new science and has been progressing for several years in different countries. Many researchers and engineers are working on this issue to provide designs and methods that increase the efficiency of the water desalination process.

Water desalination means a set of processes carried out to purify salty and impure water; through it, all the soluble substances in water are separated. It should be noted that desalination does not simply mean the separation of water-soluble salt; Moreover, the operation of water purification by removing water impurities such as bacteria and viruses is also considered part of this industry.

Many methods have been proposed to purify water in recent years. Each method has advantages and disadvantages and is used according to its application. There are many water purification methods, but if we want to provide a general classification, all methods fall into two general categories: thermal desalination and membrane desalination.

Many definitions are provided to express the difference between thermal and membrane methods. The main difference between these two methods is that in the thermal method, a phase change occurs, while in the membrane method, phase change never occurs.

Each desalination method has specific uses, according to its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, choosing the right system to produce purified water optimally is important. It is necessary to properly analyze the performance of the mentioned systems to achieve the right choice. By analyzing the performance of these systems, one can understand their capabilities.

Experimental methods are not a suitable way to investigate the performance of these systems; because it requires a lot of money and, on the other hand, a lot of time is wasted. So we can turn to numerical simulations. Modeling of the study case, the definition of desired fluids, and the use of solver and discretization methods are included in the subject of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

There is much commercial software for solving numerically. One of the most powerful and accurate software is ANSYS Fluent software. We have numerically simulated several types of water desalination systems with ANSYS Fluent software.

The thermal method of desalination works like the natural water cycle. This means that salt water evaporates by receiving heat. The produced steam is pure and free of salt and impurities. Now, it is enough for this steam to be placed in a cold environment so that it causes condensation by losing its heat. The water resulting from condensation is completely pure.

So, this method must have a heat source to change the phases. For this reason, this category of desalination systems is called the thermal method.

The most important challenge in the thermal method is the efficiency of these systems. The main disadvantage of thermal methods is that they require a heat source. Using a heat source causes high energy consumption and, therefore, high cost. For this reason, the thermal method is mainly used in large-scale power plants.

Making the system multi-stage and using thermal recovery methods helps to increase efficiency in the thermal system. In addition, these thermal systems are usually used vicinity of large water sources such as seas, rivers, and oceans. This is because a large volume of water can be desalinated on a large scale.

Water Distiller

Now, if the thermal systems are to be modeled on a small scale, their numerical analysis becomes important to investigate their performance. One of the methods of producing purified water is the use of household water distillers. The dimensions of this device are small, and the freshwater production rate is low. The most important feature of this system is its small size. Therefore, this device is used at home and can carry and move easily. In addition, its small size consumes less energy and therefore costs less to build.

This device has an almost cylindrical body with small dimensions. Its lower part is the saltwater tank. An electric heater is placed under this part to heat the water. So its lower part is called the evaporator. A tube with a low screw pitch is placed in its upper part. A fan is placed above this part to transfer the cooling to the rotating tube.

The tank water evaporates by receiving heat. When evaporation occurs, pure water turns into steam, and salt and impurities settle inside the tank. Now, this pure steam goes into the cooling pipe, and the temperature decreases. As a result of condensation, the steam turns into pure water.

We have simulated this model using ANSYS Fluent software. We have presented the results of this simulation with some animations and some contours.

Clean Water Engineering

 


Clean Water Engineering

 

Humidification – DeHumidification

Some thermal systems can be designed in different sizes. For example, they can be designed in small dimensions and for residential use, and they can be built in large dimensions and next to the seawater. The cost of consumption and the amount of freshwater produced are the factors that can be used to choose the right dimensions for the desired system.

One of the methods in this category is desalinating by humidification and dehumidification (DHD). These systems consist of two main parts. A cylindrical chamber acts as a dehumidifier or condenser, and a cylindrical chamber acts as a humidifier or evaporator. The desalination process in this system is a cycle. The saltwater is heated by a heat source and enters the humidifier.

In this section, hot water droplet is sprayed on the membrane layers. On the other hand, dry air enters this chamber’s bottom and collides with hot water in these membrane layers. The contact between these two fluids leads to separating impurities from water. Pure water evaporates and mixes with dry air to produce pure moist air. Humid air exits from the top of the humidifier and enters the dehumidifier chamber.

Inside this section, there are pipes carrying cold flows. After contact with the cold pipes, humid air decreases the temperature and condenses. As a result, fresh water is produced at the end of the cycle.

We have simulated this model using ANSYS Fluent software. We have presented the results of this simulation with some animations and some contours.

Clean Water Engineering

Solar Distillation

The most important issue in thermal desalination methods is their energy consumption. The product production to energy consumption ratio should be the right amount; in other words, the system’s efficiency should be high. The use of new energies can be a good solution in this field. Solar energy is the most available and cheapest energy to replace fuel sources.

There are several thermal desalination methods using solar energy. In one of these systems, inclined glass surfaces are used. Solar rays pass through the glass and reach the water’s surface inside the system. Heating the water surface causes surface evaporation. The produced steam is pure and impure materials settled at the bottom of the system. This pure steam hits the inner surface of the inclined glass and causes condensation by losing heat. The slope used for the glasses causes the drops of distilled water to slide on the surface of the glass and be directed to the system’s outlet.

We have simulated this model using ANSYS Fluent software. We have presented the results of this simulation with some animations and some contours.

Clean Water Engineering

Reverse Osmosis

Unlike the thermal method, membrane desalination systems do not require a heat source or phase change. Therefore, they consume very little energy and significantly reduce the cost of consumption. In these systems, special membranes are used to trap water-soluble impurities.

In fact, the impure fluid is directed to the membranes or filters embedded in the system by applying external pressure, such as electro pumps. The presence of these membranes in the system causes pure fluid to appear on one side of the membrane and fluid with a high concentration of impurity on the other side. For this reason, this class of desalination systems is called the membrane method.

There are several membrane methods for producing fresh water. The most famous membrane method is reverse osmosis systems. This system is considered the most suitable method for efficiency and energy consumption if two fluids with different concentrations are placed next to each other.

Fluid flow naturally tends to flow from a solution of lower concentration to a higher concentration until the concentration on both sides is balanced. This movement continues until equilibrium is established in terms of concentration. So, the surface difference is created in two parts, which, as a result, causes the pressure difference. This pressure difference is called the osmotic pressure difference.

Now, if a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the impure part of the system, the direction of the natural movement of water is reversed. The reverse osmosis desalination system creates pressure beyond the osmotic pressure using a pump and passes through a special membrane to remove nitrates, minerals, chemicals, and bacteria.

We have simulated this model using ANSYS Fluent software. We have presented the results of this simulation with some animations and some contours.

Clean Water Engineering

Membrane Distillation

Sometimes it is possible to design systems that are a combination of both thermal and membrane methods. This means that the phase change happens inside the system, and a membrane is also used. The main reason for designing such systems is to increase their efficiency.

The membrane distillation method is included in this category of desalination systems. In this type of system, there are two separate paths. On one side of the system, the flow of saline feed water moves and is heated by a heat source. Then this flow of warm salt water enters from the other side of the system.

A membrane layer is placed between the two hot and cold fluid paths. The hot stream enters the membrane and condenses in contact with the wall of the cold water channel. These membrane distillation systems are divided into categories: DCMD, AGMD, VMD, and SGMD. In direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), the hot fluid flow directly hits the outer surface of the cold duct.

In air gap membrane desalination (AGMD), an air gap is also placed between the membrane layer and the cold duct. This air gap is where condensation occurs. In vacuum membrane desalination (VMD), a special layer vacuums the steam with a vacuum pump to be condensed outside the system by a condenser, producing fresh water. In sweeping gas membrane desalination (SGMD), a special layer sweeps the gas stream to be condensed outside the system by a condenser, producing fresh water.

We have simulated this model using ANSYS Fluent software. We have presented the results of this simulation with some contours.

MR-CFD, an Expert in the Field of Clean Water Engineering Simulations

With several years of experience in simulating various problems in different CFD fields using ANSYS Fluent software, the MR-CFD Company is ready to offer extensive modeling, meshing, and simulation services. Our simulation Services for Clean Water Engineering simulations are categorized as follows:

  • Simulation and analysis of Humidification, Dehumidification, HDH, etc.
  • Simulation of flow in case of Solar Distillation, Domestic Water Distiller, etc.
  • Flow simulation in Reverse Osmosis, Reverse Pressure, etc.
  • CFD Simulation of various kinds of Membrane Distillation.

You may find the related products to the Clean Water simulation category in Training Shop.

Our services are not limited to the mentioned subjects, and the MR-CFD is ready to undertake different and challenging projects in the Clean Water Engineering modeling field ordered by our customers. We even accept carrying out CFD simulation for any abstract or concept design you have in your mind to turn them into reality and even help you reach the best design for what you may have imagined. You can benefit from MR-CFD expert consultation for free and then order your project to be simulated and trained.

By outsourcing your project to the MR-CFD as a CFD simulation freelancer, you will not only receive the related project’s resource files (Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, …), but also you will be provided with an extensive tutorial video demonstrating how you can create the geometry, mesh, and define the needed settings(pre-processing, processing and post-processing) in the ANSYS Fluent software all by yourself. Additionally, post-technical support is available to clarify issues and ambiguities.

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