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External Flow (Wind) Around Tall Buildings CFD Simulation

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The problem simulates the wind flow through 3 tall buildings in an environment.

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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External Flow (Wind) Project Description

The problem simulates the wind flow through several buildings in a given environment. In fact, these buildings are considered barriers to airflow. The flow around the obstacles in the way of wind flow, such as the flow around buildings, aircraft wings, ship’s propellers, rigs, tall structures, etc., has many engineering applications. In the present case, the wind flow around the three buildings is considered to be where the airflow enters it horizontally at a speed of 5 m.s-1 and hits the buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of airflow around buildings after colliding with them and to study the vortex phenomena behind these objects.

This simulation is transient and the whole simulation process is done in one second with 0.01 s time step size.

Geometry & Mesh

The present 3-D model is drawn using the Design Modeler software. The present model consists of a very large area in the form of a rectangular cube with dimensions of 120 m ⨯ 300 m ⨯ 100 m and three tall buildings within this area with a height of 75 m. The figure below shows a view of the geometry.

external flow

The meshing of the model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software and the mesh type is unstructured. The element number is 128893, and the cells adjacent to the buildings are smaller and more accurate. The following figure shows a view of the mesh.

external flow

External Flow (Wind) CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered, which are:

  • The Pressure-Based solver has been performed.
  • Simulation has only been performed in a fluid state ignoring heat transfer perspective.
  • The present simulation is unsteady in terms of time because the purpose of the problem is to examine the effect of wind flow on structures over time.
  • The effect of gravity on the fluid is not considered.

The following table present a summary of the steps for defining the problem and  its solution:

Models(external flow)
Viscous modelk-epsilon
k-epsilon modelRNG
near-wall treatmentstandard wall function
Boundary conditions(external flow)
InletVelocity inlet
velocity magnitude5 m.s-1
OutletPressure outlet
gauge pressure0 Pascal
Side walls and buildingWall
Wall motionstationary wall
Solution Methods(external flow)
Pressure-velocity coupling SIMPLE
Spatial discretizationpressuresecond order
momentumsecond order upwind
turbulent kinetic energyfirst order upwind
turbulent dissipation ratefirst order upwind
Initialization(external flow)
Initialization method Standard
gauge pressure0 pascal
x-velocity5 m.s-1
y-velocity, z-velocity0 m.s-1

External Flow (Wind)Results

At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to the pressure, velocity and turbulence kinetic energy, as well as two-dimensional and three-dimensional pathlines and vectors are obtained. The contours, pathlines and two-dimensional vectors are drawn in both XY and XZ sections. All contours, pathlines, and velocity vectors are obtained in the final second of the solution process (1s).


All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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