External Flow (Wind) Around Tall Buildings , ANSYS Fluent CFD Training

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The problem simulates the external wind flow through tall buildings.

This product includes Geometry & Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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External Flow (Wind) Project Description

The problem simulates the wind flow through several buildings in a given environment by ANSYS Fluent software. In fact, these buildings are considered barriers to airflow. The flow around the obstacles in the way of wind flow, such as the flow around buildings, aircraft wings, ship’s propellers, rigs, tall structures, etc., has many engineering applications. In the present case, the wind flow around the three buildings is considered to be where the airflow enters it horizontally at a speed of 5 m.s-1 and hits the buildings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of airflow around buildings after colliding with them and to study the vortex phenomena behind these objects.

This simulation is transient and the whole simulation process is done in one second with 0.01 s time step size.

Geometry & Mesh

The present 3-D model is drawn using the Design Modeler software. The present model consists of a very large area in the form of a rectangular cube with dimensions of 120 m ⨯ 300 m ⨯ 100 m and three tall buildings within this area with a height of 75 m. The figure below shows a view of the geometry.

external flow

The meshing of the model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software and the mesh type is unstructured. The element number is 128893, and the cells adjacent to the buildings are smaller and more accurate. The following figure shows a view of the mesh.

external flow

External Flow (Wind) CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered, which are:

  • The Pressure-Based solver has been performed.
  • Simulation has only been performed in a fluid state ignoring heat transfer perspective.
  • The present simulation is unsteady in terms of time because the purpose of the problem is to examine the effect of wind flow on structures over time.
  • The effect of gravity on the fluid is not considered.

The following table present a summary of the steps for defining the problem and  its solution:

Models (external flow)
Viscous model k-epsilon
k-epsilon model RNG
near-wall treatment standard wall function
Boundary conditions (external flow)
Inlet Velocity inlet
velocity magnitude 5 m.s-1
Outlet Pressure outlet
gauge pressure 0 Pascal
Side walls and building Wall
Wall motion stationary wall
Solution Methods (external flow)
Pressure-velocity coupling   SIMPLE
Spatial discretization pressure second order
momentum second order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
Initialization (external flow)
Initialization method   Standard
gauge pressure 0 pascal
x-velocity 5 m.s-1
y-velocity, z-velocity 0 m.s-1

External Flow (Wind)Results

At the end of the solution process, we obtain two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to the pressure, velocity and turbulence kinetic energy, as well as two-dimensional and three-dimensional pathlines and vectors. The contours, pathlines and two-dimensional vectors are drawn in both XY and XZ sections. All contours, pathlines, and velocity vectors are obtained in the final second of the solution process (1s).

You can obtain Geometry & Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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