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Mountain External Airflow CFD Simulation

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The purpose of this project is to study the airflow and heat transfer on the surface of the mountain.


This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Project Description

The study of natural phenomena has always been of interest to researchers. The purpose of this project is to study the airflow and its heat transfer on the surface of the mountain that it encounters in the passage, which is also effective in determining the air passage for the aircraft.

In this project, the air enters the computational domain with the velocity and temperature of 8 m/s and 297.5 K, respectively. The energy model is activated. Due to the nature of the flow, which is of the external flow type, and considering the airflow velocity, which has consequences such as flow separation, and vortexes behind the mountain, the K-epsilon Standard model has been used to analyze the turbulent flow.

Mountain Geometry and Mesh

The geometry of this model is designed in ANSYS design modeler® and is meshed in ANSYS meshing®. The computational domain consists of an airflow inlet, the mountain itself and 3 different pressure-outlets (including top and side walls), and the main outlet. The mesh type used for this geometry is unstructured and the element number is 1250044.

mountain mountain

External Airflow around a Mountain CFD Simulation

The key assumptions considered in this project are:

  • Simulation is done using pressure-based solver.
  • The present simulation and its results are transient. 16 time steps with a step size of 7 seconds are exploited for this simulation.
  • The effect of gravity has not been taken into account.

The applied settings are summarized in the following table.

Viscous model k-epsilon
 k-epsilon modelstandard
 near wall treatmentstandard wall function
Energy On
(mountain)Boundary conditions 
Inlets Velocity inlet
 Velocity8 m/s
 temperature297.5 K
 turbulent Intensity5 %
 Turbulent Viscosity Ratio10
Outlets Pressure outlet
 Gauge pressure0 Pa
 Backflow temperature297.5 K
 Backflow turb. Intensity5 %
 Backflow turb. Visc. Ratio10
Wallswall motionstationary wall
Mountain surfaceTemperature300 K
Bottom surfaceHeat flux0 W/m2
(mountain)Solution Methods 
Pressure-velocity coupling Simple
Spatial discretizationpressureSecond order
momentumsecond order upwind
energysecond order upwind
Turbulent kinetic energyFirst order upwind
Turbulent dissipation rateFirst order upwind
Initialization method Standard
 gauge pressure0 Pa
 velocity (x,y,z)(0,8,0) m/s
 Turbulent kinetic energy0.24 m2/s2
 Turbulent dissipation rate35.48899 m2/s3
 Temperature300 K


Contours of pressure, velocity, temperature, streamlines and velocity vectors are presented.


All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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