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Porous Mixer for Increasing the Heat Transfer of Nanofluid, ANSYS Fluent

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In this project, mixing hot (303k) and cold (293) nanofluid flows investigated while mixing these two streams once using 28 mixers and once using 54 mixers modeled as a porous medium.

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Description

Porous Mixer Introduction

In this project, mixing hot (303k) and cold (293) nanofluid flows investigated while mixing these two streams once using 28 mixers and once using 54 mixers modeled as a porous medium.

Porous Mixer Geometry and Mesh Generation

Geometries were drawn in SpaceClaim software, and their meshes were generated by Ansys Meshing software. Two types of geometry are considered for this project. The first case is where there are 2 rows of mixers, and the second case where there are 4 rows of mixers. Geometries and their dimensions are shown in this figure.

porous mixer

The grids created on the geometries are unstructured with the triangles method. Figure 2 shows the created meshes. The number of cells for case 1 is 87501, and for case 2 is 83180

Mr CFD

Numerical Setup

  1. Due to incompressibility, the pressure-based solver was implemented.
  2. The gravity effect on the fluid is ignored.
  3. Time formulation is assumed Steady.

A coupled algorithm was applied in the pressure-velocity coupling, and   model (Realizable-Standard)  was chosen as a turbulence model.

Nanofluid is modeled as a single-phase fluid with modified thermophysical properties. These properties are calculated using the below formulas. Mixers are simulated as porous mediums of Aluminum with porous permeability equal to 1.

porous mixer

Where porous mixer are density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity coefficient of nanofluid and volume fraction of nanoparticles in the fluid.

Nano Fluid

We represent the table of materials obtained from the above formulas:

Table 1. Table of Nanofluid properties

Material Name Nano+fluid (based on water, with modification)
Density 1314.536 kg/m3
Specific heat (Cp) 3147 J/kg.K
Thermal conductivity 0.88 w/m.K
Viscosity 0.00098 kg/m.s

There are two inlets to this project. Both have a speed of 0.1 meters per second. But the temperature is 293 K for the upper inlet and 303 K for the lower inlet. The outlet boundary has a pressure outlet boundary condition, and the walls are all stationary with the no-slip condition. Table 2 and Figure 3 show the boundary conditions.

porous mixer

Table of boundary conditions

Inlet 1 Velocity inlet(m/s)= 0.1

Normal to boundary

Turbulent Intensity = 0.03

Turbulent viscosity Ratio = 10

Temperature = 293k

Inlet 2 Velocity inlet(m/s)= 0.1

Normal to boundary

Turbulent Intensity = 0.03

Turbulent viscosity Ratio = 10

Temperature = 303k

Other walls Stationary wall

No-slip condition

Outlet Pressure outlet

Normal to boundary

Turbulent Intensity = 0.03

Turbulent viscosity Ratio = 10

Porous Mixer Results:

The velocity, static pressure, and static temperature contours, and the vectors,  As you can see from the pictures, the speed contour is more uniform for the 2-row case. The reason can be attributed to the smaller number of cubes and, as a result, less change in velocity gradient (due to the collision of the flow with the sharp edges). The maximum and average speeds are higher in the 4-row case. This indicates that although the number of separation zones is higher in the 4-row case, the separations are more substantial in the 2-row case. The pressure gauges also show that the pressure is more negative for the 2-row case. This is also understandable from Bernoulli’s equation.

At the top of the domain, where the temperature is lower than other temperatures on the domain, the pressure has more positive values. Temperature counters show that the maximum and average temperature values ​​are the same for both cases. However, in the 4-row case, due to the shape of the geometry, the range of temperature changes is broader, and the changes are slower.

Porosity

We define the porosity number as follows:

porous mixer

Where Vv is the void volume and Vt is the total volume. According to the dimensions of the problem, the porosity is 0.937 for the 2-row case and 0.875 for the 4-row case.

We present the temperature diagram on the centerline of the geometries. As we can see from the diagram, for the 4-row case, the temperature has a higher value in the center of the geometry due to the more significant number of separation zones.

porous mixer

There is a mesh file in this product. By the way, the Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

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