Solidification and Melting of PCM around a Corrugated Tube
The present problem simulates solidification and melting of a phase change material (PCM) around a wavy tube using ANSYS Fluent software.
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The present problem simulates solidification and melting of a phase change material (PCM) inside a tube with a wavy inner surface using ANSYS Fluent software. In general, phase change materials are materials with organic compounds that can absorb and store large amounts of latent thermal energy. Thermal energy storage in these materials is achieved during the phase change process (solid phase to liquid or vice versa); So that when changing phase from solid to liquid, it absorbs heat from its surroundings (causes cooling of surrounding space) and when changing phase from liquid to solid, returns heat to its surroundings (causes surrounding space heating). The phase change material studied in this simulation is paraffin.
It has a density equal to 150 kg.m-3 and a specific heat capacity equal to 2000 j.kg-1.K-1 and a thermal conductivity equal to 0.2 Wm-1.K-1, and a viscosity equal to 0.03499 kg.m -1.s-1. In this simulation, the solidification and melting model is used to define phase change materials. To define paraffin as a phase change agent, the maximum temperature at which the solid phase temperature is (solidus temperature) is 350.15 K, and the minimum temperature at which the liquid phase temperature is (liquidus temperature) is 358.15 K. And the pure solvent melting heat is defined as 176000 j.kg-1. The transient solver performs the simulation with a time step equal to 1 s.
Geometry & Mesh
The present model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The model consists of a tube with a length of 0.5 m and an outer diameter of 0.15 m, the inner space separated from the main pipe in the form of a sinusoidal or wavy tube.
We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software, and the mesh type is structured. The element number is 115362. The following figure shows the mesh.
Solidification and Melting CFD Simulation
We consider several assumptions to simulate the present model:
- We perform a pressure-based solver.
- The simulation is unsteady.
- The gravity effect on the fluid is equal to -9.81 m.s-2 along the Y-axis.
The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution:
|Solidification and Melting||On|
|mushy zone parameter||100000|
|Inner Wall & Outer Wall||Wall|
|wall motion||stationary wall|
|wall motion||stationary wall|
|heat flux||0 W.m-2|
|momentum||second order upwind|
|energy||second order upwind|
|gauge pressure||0 pascal|
|velocity (x,y,z)||0 m.s-1|
Solidification and Melting Results & Discussions
At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to pressure, temperature, liquid mass fraction, temperature gradient are obtained. Since the simulation is performed unsteady, the present results are related to the 7000s of the simulation process.
There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.