Solidification of Molted Steel in Solidifying Chamber

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In this project, the solidification process of molten steel inside a solidifying chamber is simulated by applying a VOF multi-phase model by ANSYS Fluent.

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Solidifying Chamber, Solidification of Molted Steel using VOF Multi-Phase Model, ANSYS Fluent CFD Simulation Training

Solidification, also known as freezing, is a phase change of matter that results in the production of a solid. Generally, this occurs when the temperature of a liquid is lowered below its freezing point. Solidification is nearly always an exothermic process, meaning heat is released when a liquid changes into a solid. Therefore, to accelerate the solidification process, the heat transfer rate must be increased, and this can be done using different coolants to take the heat away from the solidifying matter.

Solidifying Project Description

In this project, the solidification process of molten steel inside a solidifying chamber is investigated. Water is used to lower the molten steel’s temperature and to accelerate the solidification process. The simulation is done using the VOF model for the three phases of air, water, and steel. The standard k-epsilon model using standard wall functions is applied for solving the turbulent flow inside the canal. The energy model is also activated.

Solidifying Chamber Geometry and Mesh

The geometry for analyzing this simulation consists of a chamber in which water is injected and molten steel enters inside this canal to lose its temperature and solidification. Geometry is designed in ANSYS design modeler® and is meshed in ANSYS meshing®. The mesh type is unstructured and the total element number is 560362.

The following figure shows the geometry of the modeled solidifying chamber

Solidification Geom2 4

The following figure shows the mesh of the modeled solidifying chamber

Solidifying Chamber

Solidifying CFD simulation settings

The assumptions considered in this project are:

  • Simulation is using a pressure-based solver.
  • The present simulation is transient. 500 time steps with a step size of 1 second are exploited for this simulation.
  • The effect of gravity has been taken into account and is equal to -9.81m/s2 in the Y direction.

The applied settings are recapitulated in the following table.

(solidifying) Models
Viscous model k-epsilon
k-epsilon model Standard
near-wall treatment standard wall function
Multiphase VOF
Phase 1 Air
Phase 2 Water
Phase 3 Steel
Energy On
(solidifying) Boundary conditions
Inlets Mass-flow inlet
Water inlet(both inlets) Mass flow rate 16 Kg/s
Outlets Pressure outlet
wall motion stationary wall
Heat flux 0 W/m2
(solidifying) Solution Methods
Pressure-velocity coupling Coupled
Spatial discretization pressure PRESTO!
Volume fraction Compressive
momentum first-order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first-order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first-order upwind
Energy first-order upwind
(solidifying) Initialization
Initialization method   Standard
gauge pressure 0 Pa
velocity (x,y,z) 0 m/s-1
Turbulent kinetic energy 1 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 1 m2/s3
temperature 300 K


At the end of the solution we obtain contours of temperature, velocity, pressure, and enthalpy.


  1. Avatar Of Estelle Connelly Phd

    Estelle Connelly PhD

    Does simulation predict the final microstructure of the solidified steel?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Yes, the simulation provides detailed information about the temperature distribution and solidification rate, predicting the final microstructure requires additional models that can be incorporated upon request.

  2. Avatar Of Prof. Luna Denesik

    Prof. Luna Denesik

    I want to ask if the simulation can be adjusted to account for different cooling rates

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Yes, the simulation can be adjusted to account for different cooling rates, which can significantly affect the solidification process and the final properties of the steel.

  3. Avatar Of Deborah Stokes

    Deborah Stokes

    How does the simulation handle the shrinkage that occurs during solidification?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      The simulation includes a model that accurately captures the shrinkage that occurs during the solidification of the molten steel.

  4. Avatar Of Dolly Bernhard

    Dolly Bernhard

    Can this simulation be used to optimize the solidification process?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Absolutely! The simulation provides detailed information that can be used to optimize the solidification process and improve the quality of the final product.

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