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Pollutant Prediction in a Combustion Chamber CFD Simulation

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In this project, a combustion reaction and pollutant prediction is simulated inside a combustion chamber.

This product includes Mesh file and a Training Movie.

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Combustion is the result of a chemical process between combustible material and an oxidizing agent associated with the production of heat and the chemical change of raw materials. Heat can be released by producing light in the form of a flame or a glow. Fossil fuels are usually made of organic compounds in the form of gases, liquids, or solids. As mentioned above, burning is a type of oxidation reaction. However, due to the high speed of the combustion reaction, which leads to the production of a high amount of heat in a short time, and the increase in the ambient temperature, and the creation of light and flame, it falls into a particular category. In this study we are going to investigate the pollutant prediction in a combustion chamber.

Project Description

In this project, a combustion reaction is simulated inside a combustion chamber. The volatile coal mixture in a gaseous state enters the combustion chamber and mixes with high-temperature airflow (1623 K). As a result, the combustion process takes place. This process will also result in different productions, including pollutants like NOx, SOx, etc., which will be analyzed in this project. The energy equation is activated. K-epsilon Standard viscosity model is used to analyze the mixture’s turbulence, and standard wall function is exploited for the regions near the walls. The species transport model is used to analyze the combustion process. The finite rate/Eddy-Dissipation method has been used to investigate the chemical-turbulent interaction of combustion reactants, and NOx, SOx, and soot models are activated, and the algebraic approach is used for Turbulence Interaction mode. The ideal gas equation has also been used to determine the density changes due to temperature changes.

Combustion Chamber Geometry & Mesh

This project’s geometry is designed and meshed inside the ANSYS design modeler and meshed in ANSYS meshing software. The mesh type used for this geometry is unstructured, and the total element number is 508367.

pollutant predictionPollutant Prediction CFD Simulation Settings

The critical assumptions considered in this project are:

  • Simulation is done using a pressure-based solver.
  • The present simulation and its results are considered steady and do not change as a function of time.
  • The effect of gravity has not been taken into account.

The applied settings are recapitulated in the following table.

Viscous model k-epsilon
k-epsilon model standard
near-wall treatment standard wall function
Energy on
Species Species transport
Reactions Volumetric
Chemistry solver None-explicit source
Option Diffusion energy source
Mixture material Coal-volatiles-air
Turbulence chemistry interaction Finite rate/Eddy-dissipation
NOx mode on
Pathways Thermal NOx + Prompt NOx+Fuel NOx+N2O intermediate

Turbulence interaction mode

PDF mode Temperature/species
PDF type beta
Temperature variance algebraic
Formation model parameters
thermal [O] model equilibrium
Prompt Equivalence ratio 1
SOx Formation on

Turbulence interaction mode

PDF mode Temperature/species
PDF type beta
Temperature variance algebraic
Soot Model One-step
Boundary conditions
Inlet velocity inlet

Coal inlet

Velocity magnitude 30 m/s
Thermal 300 K
Species (mass fraction) vol à 1


Hot air inlet

Mass flow rate 0.031944 Kg/s
Thermal 1623 K
Species (mass fraction) O2 à 0.21
Outlet Pressure outlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
wall motion stationary wall
Heat flux 0 W/m2
Species (boundary condition) Zero diffusive flux
Solution Methods
Pressure-velocity coupling   SIMPLE
Spatial discretization pressure standard
momentum first order upwind
energy second order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
Species second order upwind
Pollutants second order upwind
Initialization method   Standard
gauge pressure 0 Pa
velocity (x,y,z) (0,0,1.035874) m/s-1
temperature 1423 K
Turbulent kinetic energy 0.000643821 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 0.0001817394 m2/s3
O2 0.21
Other species 0
pollutants 0

Results & discussion

When comparing two contours of temperature and NO, it can be easily observed that the NOx pollutant is mostly generated at places where the flame has its highest temperature. One way to reduce the generation of this pollution is to reduce the effective temperature of combustion and flame. However, it should be mentioned that lowering the flame temperature will result in an increased amount of generated soot near the flame’s advancing edges.

There is a mesh file in this product. By the way, the Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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