Wind Tower (2-D) CFD Simulation by ANSYS Fluent
In this project, the conjugate heat transfer of airflow in a simplified 4-story building model applying wind tunnel is investigated.
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In this project, the conjugate heat transfer of airflow in a simplified 4-story building model applying wind tunnel is investigated. Turbulent airflow enters the domain from the top left region and due to heat transfer to air from the right diagonal wall with temperature and heat generation rate of solar radiation equal to 305 K and 1000 W/m3 respectively, conjugate (natural and forced convection) heat transfer leads to buoyancy effect which helps airflow to exit domain from the top right region. This process creates steady airflow in all four stories of the building. The Boussinesq approximation is utilized to simulate upward force on fluid due to the difference in density.
Wind Tower Geometry & Mesh
This project’s 2D geometry is designed in the Design Modeler, and the computational grid is generated using Ansys Meshing software. The mesh type is structured, and the element number is 6375.
Wind Tower CFD Simulation Settings
Critical assumptions of this simulation are:
- We use the Boussinesq approximation for adding buoyancy body-force to Navier-Stokes equations to simulate natural convection effects. For this matter, gravitational acceleration equal to -9.81 m/s2 is enabled in the Y direction.
- Solver type is assumed to be Pressure-Based.
- Time formulation is Steady.
- Velocity formulation is Absolute.
The applied settings are recapitulated in the following table.
(enhanced wall treatment)
(activated thermal effects and pressure gradient effects)
|Initial density||1.225 kg/m3|
|Thermal expansion coefficient||0.00331 1/K|
|Inlet||Velocity inlet||12 m/s|
|Hydraulic diameter||0.5 m|
|Gauge pressure||0 Pa|
|Backflow hydraulic diameter||0.2 m|
|Hot wall||Momentum||No slip|
|Heat generation rate||1000 W/m3|
|Pressure velocity coupling||Scheme||SIMPLE|
|Spatial discretization||Gradient||Least square cell-based|
|Momentum||Second order Upwind|
|Turbulent kinetic energy||First order Upwind|
|Turbulent dissipation rate||First order Upwind|
|Energy||Second order Upwind|
|Initialization||Gauge pressure||0 Pa|
|X velocity||0 m/s|
|Y velocity||0 m/s|
|Turbulent kinetic energy||2.16 m2/s2|
|Turbulent dissipation rate||14.9037 m2/s3|
Results & Discussion
Contours of velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy are extracted and presented below.
Comparing the velocity magnitude of airflow in four floors demonstrates the efficiency of the “wind tower” structure, which is visibly understandable that the higher the floor, the more efficient the air conditioning structure is due to higher airflow velocity.
Extreme turbulence is captured at an intake airflow of the third floor due to flow separation at this region and consequent negative pressure gradients.
Heat transfer to airflow is done mainly on the first floor, at which airflow has the least velocity magnitude in both intake and outtake regions.
There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.