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Wind Tower (2-D) CFD Simulation by ANSYS Fluent

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In this project, the conjugate heat transfer of airflow in a simplified 4-story building model applying wind tunnel is investigated.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Project description

In this project, the conjugate heat transfer of airflow in a simplified 4-story building model applying wind tunnel is investigated. Turbulent airflow enters the domain from the top left region and due to heat transfer to air from the right diagonal wall with temperature and heat generation rate of solar radiation equal to 305 K and 1000 W/m3 respectively, conjugate (natural and forced convection) heat transfer leads to buoyancy effect which helps airflow to exit domain from the top right region. This process creates steady airflow in all four stories of the building. The Boussinesq approximation is utilized to simulate upward force on fluid due to the difference in density.

Wind Tower Geometry & Mesh

This project’s 2D geometry is designed in the Design Modeler, and the computational grid is generated using Ansys Meshing software. The mesh type is structured, and the element number is 6375.

wind tower wind tower

Wind Tower CFD Simulation Settings

Critical assumptions of this simulation are:

  • We use the Boussinesq approximation for adding buoyancy body-force to Navier-Stokes equations to simulate natural convection effects. For this matter, gravitational acceleration equal to -9.81 m/s2 is enabled in the Y direction.
  • Solver type is assumed to be Pressure-Based.
  • Time formulation is Steady.
  • Velocity formulation is Absolute.

The applied settings are recapitulated in the following table.

Viscous Realizable K-epsilon

(enhanced wall treatment)

(activated thermal effects and pressure gradient effects)

Energy On
Material properties
Air Density model Boussinesq
Initial density 1.225 kg/m3
Thermal expansion coefficient 0.00331 1/K
Boundary conditions
Inlet Velocity inlet 12 m/s
Turbulent intensity 10%
Hydraulic diameter 0.5 m
Outlet Pressure outlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
Turbulent intensity 10%
Backflow hydraulic diameter 0.2 m
Hot wall Momentum No slip
Temperature 305 K
Heat generation rate 1000 W/m3
Solver configuration
Pressure velocity coupling Scheme SIMPLE
Spatial discretization Gradient Least square cell-based
Pressure Standard
Momentum Second order Upwind
Turbulent kinetic energy First order Upwind
Turbulent dissipation rate First order Upwind
Energy Second order Upwind
Initialization Gauge pressure 0 Pa
X velocity 0 m/s
Y velocity 0 m/s
Turbulent kinetic energy 2.16 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 14.9037 m2/s3
Temperature 300 K

Results & Discussion

Contours of velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy are extracted and presented below.

Comparing the velocity magnitude of airflow in four floors demonstrates the efficiency of the “wind tower” structure, which is visibly understandable that the higher the floor, the more efficient the air conditioning structure is due to higher airflow velocity.

Extreme turbulence is captured at an intake airflow of the third floor due to flow separation at this region and consequent negative pressure gradients.

Heat transfer to airflow is done mainly on the first floor, at which airflow has the least velocity magnitude in both intake and outtake regions.

wind tower

There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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