DDPM, Accumulation of Particles in Elbow Bend, ANSYS Fluent Training

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Accumulation of Particles Inside An Elbow Bend using DDPM is simulated by ANSYS Fluent software.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Project Description (DDPM)

While the DPM strategy for CFD solutions proved to be an excellent method to calculate flow particle-flow studies, this approach cannot provide reliable answers for dense particle simulations.

To remove this issue, the DDPM (Dense-Discrete-Phase-Method) is mostly employed in CFD projects. For instance, in the current project, we have simulated a simple elbow bend. However, the fast injection would result in a dense accumulation of particles. Therefore, a dense DDPM model is employed. Our computational domain comprises a 25 [mm] annulus of the air and particle mass flow of 4.34×10-7 [kg/s]. The diameter of particles considered 10.06×10-12 [m] with a velocity magnitude of 0.09625 [m/s]. Both phases were considered unsteady, and the injection time for the particle was considered equal at each flow time-step of 0.005 [s].


Mathematical Modeling

To study the current problem, one must solve the flow equations in the differential form. Also, we assume the incompressible and turbulent condition inside the elbow geometry since the particle-flow interactions are more likely to create a turbulent condition flow. Also, we have employed a Realizable k-epsilon model with Menter-Lechner wall-function to account for our boundary layer.

Geometry and Mesh

As a numerical study, the initial step towards the modeling is the production of the CAD geometry. We consider the blue face as the inlet of the domain while the red face as the outlet. For the current problem, we generate a mesh count of 150,624 elements to represent half of the domain and used symmetry at the mid surface of the domain. Regarding the quality of the mesh, the maximum skewness of 0.05 is low due to being a structured mesh. Finally, we performed the meshing operation via ANSYS-Meshing software.


DDPM Simulation Settings

When we import the mesh into the ANSYS-FLUENT solver, the calculation procedure could be started. The details of the solution setup are as follows:

Solver settings:
Type: Pressure-based
Velocity formulation: Absolute
Time setting: Transient
Gravity: g = -9.81 Y-direction
Energy: On
Model: Realizable k-epsilon
Zone: fluid zone: air-particles
Multiphase setup: Eulerian: DDPM: Implicit

Number of discrete phases: 1

Primary phase: air

Secondary phase: Ion

Forces: Drag/Lift/Wall Lubrication/Turbulent Dispersion/Turbulent Interaction/Surface Tension = DPM averaged

DPM setup: DPM Iteration Interval: 200

Unsteady Particle Tracking

Track with Fluid Flow Time-step

Max Number of steps: 10,000

Step length factor: 12

Linearize source term and Node-based averaging On

Boundary conditions: Inlet: velocity inlet: 4.37×10-7 kg/s, 300K, escape

Outlet: pressure outlet, zero gauge pressure, escape

Inner wall: No-slip, reflect, 310K, reflect

Outer wall: No-slip, reflect, 310K, reflect

Mid wall: Symmetry

Injection setup: Injector: Inlet surface

Velocity: 0.09625 m/s (face normal direction)

Total flow rate: 4.37×10-7 kg/s

Temperature: 300 K

Diameter: 10.06×10-7 m

Operating Condition: Reference Pressure Point: 101325 Pa
Solver Properties:
Solution methods: SIMPLE
Pressure: PRESTO
Momentum: First-Order
Volume-Fraction First-Order
Turbulence: First-Order
Energy: First-Order
Relaxation: Default

Time-step: 0.005, Number of Iterations = 2000

Number of time-steps: 2000

Initialization: Standard > from inlet
Material used:
Fluid: Air – constant properties

Particle: 2700 kg/m3 ; 14310 j/kg.K

Monitor: Mass average-DPM-source-y-momentum

Accumulation Results and Discussions

In the current study, we have followed the convergence up to a tight residual value of 10-10. By adding more particles to the domain, the necessity to improve the convergence became more critical due to the higher impact of the source term. Also, the mass average of the source term in y-direction was monitored during the solution to ensure that each time-step satisfied the required accuracy.

Afterward, the pressure and velocity field results are depicted for both particles and the air-fluid flow below the figures.

As it could be observed, the air velocity s increased as the flow reaches the bend section. Also, the flow temperature close to the hot wall, which is the inner wall, is higher than the other side of the pipe. Furthermore, the hot temperature diffused among fluid flow and particles over time. Interestingly, the same results were observed from the DPM particle calculations that both velocity and pressure were higher at the exact locations.

Additionally, the streamlines also imply that several vorticities were formed close to the bend location that is usually interesting for erosion simulations.

A Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie present how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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