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Eulerian Two Phase Flow within a Convergent-Divergent Channel

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The present problem simulates Eulerian two-phase flow in a channel with a convergent-divergent structure.

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Eulerian Flow Project Description

The present problem simulates two-phase flow as soluble particles in a given fluid in a channel with a convergent-divergent structure. The Eulerian multi phase model has been used to simulate the present model. The Eulerian multi phase model is considered as the most complex model for defining multi phase flows. This model solves a set of momentum and conservation equations for each of the phases separately; While the multi phase mixture and VOF methods only solve the equations for phases other than the initial phase.

We apply the Eulerian model in applications such as bubble columns, droplet flows, particle laden flows with a volume fraction greater than ten percent, pneumatic transitions for granular liquid flows, fluidized beds for solid gas flows, slurry flows, particle suspension and sedimentation phenomena as solid-liquid flows.

In this simulation, the base fluid is defined as a liquid with a density of 1050 kg.m-3 and a viscosity of 0.000024997 kg.m-1.s-1, and the secondary fluid in the form of particles with a density of 1050 kg.m-3 and a viscosity of 1. kg.m-1.s-1 is defined. The type of particle dispersion in the base liquid is defined in granular form and the particle diameter is defined as 0.00002 m. The base fluid and its soluble particles enter this channel at a rate of 0.007142 m.s-1.

Convergent-Divergent Channel Geometry & Mesh

The current model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The model consists of a channel with a rectangular cross-section with dimensions of 0.001 m * 0.0002 m, which in its longitudinal direction, the geometric structure of the model becomes convergent-divergent. The following figure shows a view of the geometry.


The meshing of the present model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is structured and the element number is equal to 175,500. The following figure shows an overview of the mesh.


Eulerian Flow in a convergent-divergent Channel CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is steady.
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is equal to -9.81 m.s-2 along the Y-axis.

A summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution is given in the following table:

Viscous   Laminar
Multi phase Model   Eulerian
  number of Eulerian phases 2
  formulation implicit
Boundary conditions
Inlet   Velocity Inlet
  gauge pressure 0 pascal
  velocity magnitude for fluid 0.007142 m.s-1
  velocity magnitude for particle 0.007142 m.s-1
  volume fraction for particle 0.4
Outlet   Pressure Outlet
  gauge pressure 0 pascal
Walls   Wall
  wall motion stationary wall
Methods (Eulerian)
Pressure-Velocity Coupling   Phase Coupled SIMPLE
  Pressure PRESTO
  momentum first order upwind
  volume fraction first order upwind
  granular temperature first order upwind
Initialization (Eulerian)
Initialization methods   Standard
  gauge pressure 0 pascal
  x-velocity 0.007142 m.s-1
  y-velocity & z-velocity 0 m.s-1
  particle volume fraction 0.4


At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to the mixing pressure, base fluid velocity, soluble particle velocity and volume fraction of soluble particles are obtained.

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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