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Mixture Nano Fluid Flows in a Heat Source Channel

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The present problem simulates the flow of an Al2O3-water nano fluid into a channel with a heat source using ANSYS Fluent software.

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Mixture Nano Fluid Project Description

The present problem simulates the flow of an Al2O3-water nano fluid into a channel with a heat source using ANSYS Fluent software. This channel has a square cross section and has ten categories of obstacles inside. Each of these obstacles has two diagonal plane barriers facing each other and a cylindrical barrier between them; So that the presence of these barriers determines the path of nano fluid flow through the channel. To define the nano fluid, a multi phase mixture type model is used.

The multi phase mixture model being used when the mixing process takes place between a fluid and a solid particle and also the boundary between the solute and the solvent is not accurately discernible. Therefore, two different materials have been used as water as the primary fluid and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as the secondary fluid. Aluminum oxide is defined as having a density of 3970 kg.m-3, specific heat capacity of 768, thermal conductivity of 40 Wm-1.K-1, viscosity is equal to 0.000017894 kg.m-1.s-1 and molecular weight is equal to 28.966 kg.kmol-1.

Project Description

Also, the aluminum oxide particles defined as a secondary fluid has a diameter of 0.00001 m. In the lower part of this channel, there is a solid area of aluminum, the floor wall of which is under constant heat flux equal to 170,000 W.m-2, which is responsible for transferring heat to the channel carrying the nano fluid.

The simulation process is done in two steps. At first, the simulation is performed in single phase mode (pure water flow only). In this case, water flow enters the channel at a temperature of 300 K and a speed of 2.233 m.s-1. Then, the simulation is performed in two-phase mode (water flow containing aluminum oxide nano particles). In this case, the nano particle of aluminum oxide enters the channel with the same speed and temperature of water flow; Thus, the nano particle volume fraction is equal to 0.01.

Geometry & Mesh

The current model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The model consists of a horizontal channel for the passage of flow, which is located on a solid object with heat flux. The canal has a rectangular section with dimensions of 0.001 m * 0.0015 m which has ten categories of obstacles. Each obstacle category consists of two plane diagonal barriers relative to each other and a cylindrical barrier between them. The aluminum solid body under the channel has dimensions of 0.002 m * 0.02 m * 0.05 m. The following figure shows a view of the geometry.


The meshing of the present model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is unstructured and the element number is equal to 2160625. The following figure shows an overview of the mesh.


Mixture Nano Fluid CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is steady.
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is ignored.

A summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution is given in the following table:

Models (mixture nano fluid)
Viscous Laminar
Multi phase Model Mixture
number of Eulerian phases 2 (water & Al2O3)
slip velocity active
formulation implicit
interface modeling dispersed
Energy On
Boundary conditions (mixture nano fluid)
Inlet Velocity Inlet
supersonic/initial gauge pressure 0 pascal
temperature 300 K
velocity magnitude for water 2.233 m.s-1
velocity magnitude for Al2O3 2.233 m.s-1
volume fraction for Al2O3 0.01
Outlet Pressure Outlet
gauge pressure 0 pascal
Wall for heat flux
wall motion stationary
heat flux 170000 W.m-2
Internal Walls between flow & solid Wall
wall motion stationary
thermal condition coupled
External Walls
wall motion stationary
heat flux 0 W.m-2
Methods (mixture nano fluid)
Pressure-Velocity Coupling Coupled
Pressure PRESTO
momentum first order upwind
volume fraction first order upwind
energy first order upwind
Initialization (mixture nano fluid)
Initialization methods Standard
gauge pressure 0 pascal
x-velocity & y-velocity 0 m.s-1
z-velocity -2.233 m.s-1
temperature 300 K
Al2O3 volume fraction 0.01


At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to the mixing pressure, mixing temperature, and velocity of each of the water and Al2O3 phases are obtained. Two-dimensional contours are obtained in two sections of X_Z and Y_Z in the fluid flow region.

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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