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# Open Channel Flow inside a 180-Degree Bend, ANSYS Fluent Simulation Training

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The present problem simulates two-phase flow (water and air) inside an open channel with a 180-degree arc using ANSYS Fluent software.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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## Project Description

The present problem simulates two-phase flow (water and air) inside an open channel with a 180-degree arc using ANSYS Fluent software. To simulate the mentioned two-phase flow, the multiphase VOF model (Volume of Fluid) have been used; Because this two-phase flow is considered free surface currents. Therefore, the VOF model is used to define different phases of the flow. In this multiphase model, airflow is defined as the primary phase and water flow as the secondary phase. Also, because the free surface of water flow inside the canal, the open channel flow model has been used; So that the level of water flow is equivalent to 0.2 m. A stream of water with a height of 0.2 m and a mass flow of 94.83 kg.s-1 enters the channel and, after passing through an arc path of 180 degrees, exits the channel’s outlet at a pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. Also, for the upper level of the duct, which is for the passage of airflow, the relative pressure limit condition equal to 0 pascals has been used.

## Geometry & Mesh

The present model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The present model is a channel with a rectangular cross-section that has an arc path of 180 degrees. The rectangular cross-section of the canal has a width of 1 m and a height of 0.7 m. We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is structured. The element number is 2316480. The following figure shows the mesh. ## CFD Simulation

We consider several assumptions to simulate the present model:

• We perform a pressure-based solver.
• The gravity effect on the fluid is equal to -9.81 m.s-2 along the vertical axis.

The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution:

 Models Viscous k-epsilon k-epsilon model RNG near wall treatment standard wall function Multiphase Model VOF number of Eulerian phases 2 (air & water) formulation implicit VOF sub-models open channel flow interface modeling sharp Boundary conditions Inlet Mass Flow Inlet free surface level for water 0.2 m bottom level for water 0 m mass flow rate of water 94.83 kg.s-1 mass flow rate of air 0 kg.s-1 Outlet & Up Pressure Outlet gauge pressure 0 pascal Walls (Inner-Outer-Buttom) Wall wall motion stationary wall Methods Pressure-Velocity Coupling SIMPLE pressure second order momentum second order upwind volume fraction compressive turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind Initialization Initialization methods Standard gauge pressure 0 pascal velocity (x,y,z) 0 m.s-1 water volume fraction 0 air volume fraction 1

## Results

At the end of the solution process, three-dimensional contours related to pressure, velocity, kinetic turbulence energy, the volume fraction of water, and the volume fraction of air inside the 180-degree arc channel are obtained.

A Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie present how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

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