Open Channel Flow inside a 180-Degree Bend, ANSYS Fluent Simulation Training

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The present problem simulates two-phase flow (water and air) inside an open channel with a 180-degree arc using ANSYS Fluent software.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Project Description

The present problem simulates two-phase flow (water and air) inside an open channel with a 180-degree arc using ANSYS Fluent software. To simulate the mentioned two-phase flow, the multiphase VOF model (Volume of Fluid) have been used; Because this two-phase flow is considered free surface currents. Therefore, the VOF model is used to define different phases of the flow. In this multiphase model, airflow is defined as the primary phase and water flow as the secondary phase. Also, because the free surface of water flow inside the canal, the open channel flow model has been used; So that the level of water flow is equivalent to 0.2 m. A stream of water with a height of 0.2 m and a mass flow of 94.83 kg.s-1 enters the channel and, after passing through an arc path of 180 degrees, exits the channel’s outlet at a pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. Also, for the upper level of the duct, which is for the passage of airflow, the relative pressure limit condition equal to 0 pascals has been used.

Geometry & Mesh

The present model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The present model is a channel with a rectangular cross-section that has an arc path of 180 degrees. The rectangular cross-section of the canal has a width of 1 m and a height of 0.7 m.

open channel flow

We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is structured. The element number is 2316480. The following figure shows the mesh.

open channel flow

CFD Simulation

We consider several assumptions to simulate the present model:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is steady.
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is equal to -9.81 m.s-2 along the vertical axis.

The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution:

Viscous k-epsilon
k-epsilon model RNG
near wall treatment standard wall function
Multiphase Model VOF
number of Eulerian phases 2 (air & water)
formulation implicit
VOF sub-models open channel flow
interface modeling sharp
Boundary conditions
Inlet Mass Flow Inlet
free surface level for water 0.2 m
bottom level for water 0 m
mass flow rate of water 94.83 kg.s-1
mass flow rate of air 0 kg.s-1
Outlet & Up Pressure Outlet
gauge pressure 0 pascal
Walls (Inner-Outer-Buttom) Wall
wall motion stationary wall
Pressure-Velocity Coupling SIMPLE
pressure second order
momentum second order upwind
volume fraction compressive
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
Initialization methods Standard
gauge pressure 0 pascal
velocity (x,y,z) 0 m.s-1
water volume fraction 0
air volume fraction 1


At the end of the solution process, three-dimensional contours related to pressure, velocity, kinetic turbulence energy, the volume fraction of water, and the volume fraction of air inside the 180-degree arc channel are obtained.

A Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie present how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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