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Water Wheel CFD Simulation

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The Water Wheel is an example of Pelton Wheel turbines. The wheels spin in two different phases of air and water.

This product includes a CFD simulation and training files using ANSYS Fluent software.

There are some free products to check the service quality.


Physical Properties of the Water Wheel Problem

The turbine’s diameter is 0.7 m and the boundary of the free surface is actually 0.2 m below the center of the water wheel. Water velocity is considered to be 3 to 5 m/s depending on the average river velocity. And accordingly, the rotational speed of the turbine should be calculated with no drag or bump in the flow. In this simulation, the rotational speed of the turbine is 60 rpm.

Water Wheel Geometry and Mesh

The geometry of the turbine is designed by SOLIDWORKS and divided into smaller sections to improve the geometry and mesh of the turbine. The geometry is divided into two general sections of rotary (Rotor) and one stationary section (Stator). The rotor part consists of the turbine and the cylinder that is located around the turbine. The diameter of the cylinder can be between 1.12 and 1.2 times larger than the diameter of the turbine. The stationary part is actually surrounds the rotary cylinder.

ICEM software was used to generate the mesh. The rotor section is first meshed, unstructured. Parts such as the turbine leading edge, use a larger number of meshes (smaller elements), due to the complexity of the flow and the high gradient in that area.Structured mesh is used for the stationary zone. Structured mesh causes the number of mesh to decrease and the quality of the mesh to be very high.After meshing the two parts separately by two different methods, the two parts are coupled together so that the geometry is fully meshed.

Boundary Condition

The boundary conditions used in the present work for the studied geometry, include the inlet boundary condition defined as Mass-Flow-Inlet and for air and water separately. Also, Pressure-Outlet boundary condition for both outlets are specified. The symmetry boundary condition defined on the sides and top of the computational domain. The turbine is also introduced as the Wall.

The most important part of boundary conditions in turbomachineries solutions is to specify the Interface surfaces, which we need to connect the rotor and stator surfaces so that they fit perfectly together and have approximately similar meshing.

The rotation of the impeller at each time step can have different values depending on the significance. In this simulation, we have 3 degrees of rotation of the impeller at each time step, which should be considered much smaller for more accurate simulations.

Mesh Motion

For the present issue we should use the MESH MOTION. In fact, stationary and rotary meshes slide with common boundaries (INTERFACE), and simulate the problem.


All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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