Car Park (Stacker) Ventilation, ANSYS Fluent CFD Simulation Training

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The present problem simulates the ventilation inside the car park using ANSYS Fluent software.

This product includes Geometry & Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Project Description

The present problem simulates the air conditioning inside the car park using ANSYS Fluent software. In this project, a stacker parking is designed, with three floors and two cars located on two floors. The structure of this type of parking lot is such that there are moving platforms on which the cars are placed, and then these platforms with the car are lifted vertically up between the two columns and placed at a higher height so that the space under it, for Provide the next car park on the lower platform. The flow of carbon monoxide is emitted through the exhaust of two cars into the car park and pollutes its interior.

The purpose of this project is to design a proper ventilation system to prevent the spread of pollutants and help eliminate these gases inside the car park. Therefore, several special vents have been used on the roof of the car park.The Species Transport Model has been used to simulate the release of carbon monoxide into the ambient air. So the number of gaseous species is equal to two, which includes air and carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, the exhaust outlet is defined as the inlet boundary condition; So that the mass fraction of CO is equal to one. A UDF is also used to define the mass flow rate of the emitted gas; Because depending on the time period, the flow rate of carbon monoxide can be zero or have a variable value.


Project Description

For air vents in the ventilation system, a value of zero for the mass fraction of carbon monoxide is used. However, to define the boundary condition of these outlet vents, the inlet velocity condition is used, but the velocity value is applied as a negative value; Because the goal is to restrict the air flow inside the car park to be directed out through these vents at a certain speed. Also, due to the fact that the emission of pollutant gas from the exhaust is a function of time, the simulation of this project has been done by Transient solver. To compare the performance of ventilation valves, the amount of suction power or the same amount of negatively defined velocity in these different output limits is considered. It has values equivalent to -1.25 ms-1, -2.5 ms-1, and -5 ms-1.

car park

Geometry & Mesh

The present model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The present model is related to a multi-story stacker car park with a simple building, inside which four cars are designed. Also, two borders on the exhaust ports of two cars are defined as a source of carbon monoxide emissions, and several borders are defined as special vents for air exit.


car park

We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is unstructured. The element number is 960365. The following figure shows the mesh.

car park

CFD Simulation

We consider several assumptions to simulate the present model:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is unsteady.
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is ignored.

The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution:

Viscous k-epsilon
k-epsilon model RNG
near-wall treatment standard wall function
Species Model Species Transport
number of volumetric species 2 (air & CO)
Energy On
Boundary conditions
Inlet (2 car exhaust) Mass Flow Inlet
mass flow rate UDF
temperature 300 K
CO mass fraction 1
Inlet (filter plate on the back of cars) Pressure Inlet
gauge total pressure 0 Pascal
temperature 300 K
CO mass fraction 0
Outlet Velocity Inlet
velocity magnitude -1.25 or -5 or -2.5 m.s-1
temperature 300 K
CO mass fraction 0
 Internal Walls Wall
wall motion stationary wall
thermal condition coupled
External Walls Wall
wall motion stationary wall
heat flux 0 W.m-2
Pressure-Velocity Coupling Coupled
pressure second order
momentum first order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
energy dissipation rate first order upwind
CO second order upwind
energy second order upwind
Initialization methods Standard
gauge pressure 0 Pascal
velocity (x,y,z) 0 m.s-1
CO mass fraction 0
temperature 300 K


At the end of the CFD simulation process, we represent the pathline of the carbon monoxide gas exiting the exhaust car manifold. In the mentioned ventilation system, several air intake vents have been used on the roof of the stacker to eliminate environmental pollution. The car stacker consists of two separate parts with a dividing wall, and each part has panels in the initial and final parts of the roof. In both the left and right parts, the incoming air enters from the filter wall of the parking wall behind the car exhaust and causes the exhaust gas to be emitted inside the parking area. However, the carbon monoxide gas route will be different in the left and right parts of the car park.

On the right side, the suction power of the end panel (-1.25 ms-1) is much less than the suction power of the front panel (-5 ms-1), and therefore, the gas flow, despite its movement towards the end of the stacker, turns backward to be sucked out of the initial panel. On the left side, the suction power of the end panel (-2.5 m.s-1) is less than the suction power of the front panel (-5 m.s-1). However, since the exhaust gas flow is to the end of the parking lot and, on the other hand, unlike the right side of the parking lot, the difference in suction power between the beginning and end of the stacker is not very significant. The gas is expelled from the end panel to the outside parking space.


Next, we obtain two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to velocity, mass fraction of carbon monoxide, mass fraction of air, and gradient mass fraction of carbon monoxide. These contours clearly show that the carbon monoxide exhaust from the exhaust manifold inside the car park quickly disappears; Therefore, we can say that the desired ventilation system works well and prevents the significant spread of gas inside the stacker. We should note that all results, including flow path lines and contours, were obtained at 5400 seconds.

You can obtain Geometry & Mesh file, and a comprehensive Training Movie which presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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