Kaplan turbine CFD Simulation by ANSYS Fluent Training

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In this project, the water flow passing over the Kaplan turbine is investigated.

This product includes Mesh file and a Training Movie.

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Turbine Introduction

Turbomachines, also known as fluid machines, are widely used in the industry. Therefore, it is very important to study their behavior in the fluid environment around them. Turbomachines are divided into two general categories. The first group works by taking energy and transferring it to the fluid and the second group, by doing work and taking energy from the fluid transferring it to the system in various forms. The first group’s examples are fans and compressors, and wind and water turbines can be mentioned as the second category. Kaplan turbines fall into the second category.

Inward Flow Reactive Turbines are one of the most popular turbines used in the industry, using the concepts of Axial and Radial flows. The inlet is a tube that rotates around the guide valves. The water enters the runner tangentially through the guide valves and becomes spiral by the runner propeller blades, which eventually causes the runner to rotate.

Kaplan Turbine Project description

In this project, the water flow passing over the Kaplan turbine is investigated. The Kaplan turbine rotates at 3300 rpm and sucks the water in. RNG k-epsilon model is exploited to solve turbulent flow equations. It should be noted that the MRF option has been activated to model the rotation of the turbine.

Geometry and mesh

We design the geometry of this project in ANSYS design modeler and mesh in ANSYS meshing. The mesh type used for this geometry is unstructured and the element number is 919824.


CFD simulation settings

The key assumptions considered in this project are:

  • Simulation is done using pressure-based solver.
  • The present simulation and its results are steady and do not change as a function time.
  • The effect of gravity has not been taken into account.

The applied settings are summarized in the following table.

Viscous model k-epsilon
k-epsilon model RNG
near wall treatment standard wall function
Cell zone conditions
Frame motion on
Fluid Rotational velocity 3300 rpm
Boundary conditions
Inlet pressure inlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
Outlet Pressure outlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
Walls Stationary wall
Solution Methods
Pressure-velocity coupling   SIMPLE
Spatial discretization Pressure Second order
Momentum second order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
Initialization method   Standard
gauge pressure 0 Pa
Velocity (x,y,z) (0,0,0) m/s
Turbulent kinetic energy 0 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 0 m2/s3

Results & discussion

As can be seen in the pressure contour for the turbine’s surface, there are sections on the turbine blades which are exposed to decreased pressure. Now, these parts have the potential to be the places where the cavitation can occur and should be studied and examined more carefully.

There is a mesh file in this product. By the way, the Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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