Magnetic Field Effect on Nanofluid, CFD Simulation
The present problem simulates a magnetic field’s effect on a nanofluid in a two-dimensional channel using ANSYS Fluent software.
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The present problem simulates a magnetic field’s effect on a nanofluid in a two-dimensional channel using ANSYS Fluent software. A channel is considered two-dimensional; So that its inner space is made of nanofluid, and its outer layer is made of aluminum. The nanofluid defined in the model is made of iron oxide called Fe3O4 and contains 2% nanoparticles. This applied nanofluid has a density equal to 1081.158 kg.m-3 and a specific heat capacity equal to 3841 j.kg-1K-1 and a thermal conductivity equal to 0.640835 Wm-1K-1, and a viscosity equal to 0.001055 kilograms.m-1s-1 Is.
Whenever particles of metal or alloy with tiny dimensions around the nano-scale are mixed inside the base fluid, nanofluid is produced that can have applications such as enhancing heat transfer due to the metals’ conductivity. Also, in this simulation, the effect of a magnetic field on the nanofluid behavior and its heat transfer has been investigated. Therefore, the magnetic hydro-dynamic model or MHD has been used. In the present work, the magnetic induction method has been used to define the magnetic field. When this method is used, an external magnetic field is generated to apply a specific magnetic flux in different Cartesian coordinates’ directions.
A constant magnetic field is used in the present work, and the magnetic flux equivalent to 1 tesla is defined only along the y-axis or the same as the channel radius. In terms of boundary conditions, the insulation condition is used for the outer wall of the channel, i.e., no electric current passes, and also for the inner wall and the common boundary between the solid and fluid parts of the model, the Coupling condition is used to transmit electric current bilaterally. The nanofluid stream enters the channel with a velocity of 0.0837 ms-1 and a temperature of 300 K. It exits the canal with a pressure equal to atmospheric pressure.
The channel’s outer wall also has a constant thermal temperature condition of a temperature equal to 320 K.
Geometry & Mesh
The present model is designed in two dimensions using Design Modeler software. The model is a channel that is drawn in two dimensions due to its symmetrical geometry. This model has a length and width of 0.49 m and 0.01 m; It has an input boundary on the left and an output boundary on the right, and the lower boundary of this area is defined as the central axis. Also adjacent to the channel’s outer wall, a boundary is defined as the fluid and solid region interface. The meshing of the present model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is structured, and the element number is equal to 9282.
We consider several assumptions to simulate the present model:
- We perform a pressure-based solver.
- The simulation is steady.
- We ignore the gravity effect on the fluid.
The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution:
|MHD Model||Magnetic Induction|
|field type||DC field|
|B-y mean||1 tesla|
|B-x mean & B-z mean||0 tesla|
|velocity magnitude||0.0837 m.s-1|
|gauge pressure||0 pascal|
|wall motion||stationary wall|
|momentum||second order upwind|
|Bx||first order upwind|
|By||first order upwind|
|energy||second order upwind|
|gauge pressure||0 pascal|
|axial velocity||0.0837 m.s-1|
|radial velocity||0 m.s-1|
Results & Discussions
At the end of the solution process, we obtain two-dimensional contours related to pressure, velocity, temperature, and magnetic field in horizontal and vertical directions in the model. Also, we obtain the diagram of the perpendicular magnetic field changes in the longitudinal direction of the central axis of the channel. The present results show the effect of applying a magnetic field and thermal boundary condition on nanofluid flow and its heat transfer.
There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.