Magnetic Field Effect on Nanofluid Heat Transfer (MHD), ANSYS Fluent

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In this project, nanofluid flows in a solid aluminum channel in presence of an applied magnetic field.

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Problem description

In this project, nanofluid flows in a solid aluminum channel in presence of an applied magnetic field. Fluid flow is steady and is simulated as one single phase flow, however thermophysical properties of nanofluid are calculated using below formulas. Surface average of nanofluid’s temperature is equal to 293.2 and 304.175K at inlet and outlet, respectively.


where magnetic are density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity coefficient of nano-fluid and volume fraction of nano-particles in fluid.

Geometry and mesh

Geometry of fluid domain is designed in Design modeler and computational grid is generated using Ansys meshing. Mesh type is unstructured and element number is 26000.


CFD Simulation

Critical assumptions:

  • Solver type is assumed Pressure Based.
  • Time formulation is assumed Steady.
  • Gravity effects is neglected.

The following table a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution.

Solver configuration


Energy On
Viscous K-epsilon (standard) Standard wall function
MHD model MHD method Magnetic induction
Solution control Solve MHD equation (on)
Include Lorentz force (on)
Include Joule heating (on)
Under relaxation (0.9)
Boundary condition Solid outer wall (insulating wall)
Fluid-solid interface (coupled wall)
External field B0 B0 input option (patch)
B0 component Bx amplitude (1T)
By amplitude (0T)
By amplitude (1T)

Solver configuration


Fluid Definition method Fluent Database
Material name Nano+fluid (based on water, with modification)
Density 1312 kg/m3
Specific heat (Cp) 3248 J/kg.K
Thermal conductivity 1.09387 w/m.K
Viscosity 0.0011 kg/m.s
UDS diffusivity constant
Electrical conductivity 1000000 siemens/m
Magnetic permeability 1.257e-6
Solid Definition method Fluent Database
Material name Al (based on Aluminum with modification)
Density 2719 kg/m3
Specific heat (Cp) 871 J/kg.K
Thermal conductivity 202.4 w/m.K
UDS diffusivity constant
Electrical conductivity 3.541e7 siemens/m
Magnetic permeability 1.257e-6

Solver configuration

Cell zone conditions

Fluid Material name Nano+fluid
Source terms Mass (0)
X momentum (1)
Y momentum (1)
Z momentum (1)
Turbulent kinetic energy (0)
Turbulent dissipation rate (0)
Energy (1)
B_x (1)
B_y (1)
B_z (1)
Solid Material name Aluminum
Source terms Energy (2)

1.       UDF MHD energy source

2.       1000000 w/m3

B_x (1)
B_y (1)
B_z (1)

Solver configuration

Boundary conditions

Inlet Type Velocity inlet
Velocity magnitude 1 m/s
Turbulence intensity 5%
Turbulent viscosity ratio 10
Temperature 293.2 K
Outer Wall solid Temperature 320 K
Solver configurations
Pressure-velocity coupling Scheme SIMPLE
Spatial discretization Gradient Least square cell-based
Pressure Second order
Momentum Second order Upwind
Turbulent kinetic energy First order upwind
Turbulent dissipation rate First order upwind
Energy Second order Upwind
B_x First order upwind
B_y First order upwind
B_z First order upwind
Initialization X velocity 1 m/s
Temperature 293.2 K

Results and discussion

Nano-fluid flow average temperature at inlet and out location is 293.2 and 304.175K respectively. In case of no magnetic field affecting the nano-fluid, temperature at outlet decreases to 303.74K. Heat flux to nanofluid is equal to 112102.2 w/m2.


Comparison between outlet temperature of nano-fluid in presence and absence of magnetic field, reveals the effectiveness of magnetic field application in present work. Magnetic field application increases outlet temperature by 1K and heat transfer to nano-fluid by 200w/m2.


There is a mesh file in this product. By the way, the Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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