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Pulsatile Blood Flow in Arterial Bifurcation, CFD Simulation

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In this project, unsteady pulsatile blood flow is simulated in an artery bifurcation simplified model.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Pulsatile Blood Flow in Arterial Bifurcation Problem description

In this project, unsteady pulsatile blood flow is simulated in an artery bifurcation simplified model. The unsteady nature of blood flow is simulated using a User-Defined Function (UDF), which changes the inlet velocity according to flow time as a sinus function. The results show the prone regions of artery wall rupture and stenosis formation.

Arterial Bifurcation Geometry and mesh

The fluid domain geometry is designed in Design Modeler, and the computational grid is generated using Ansys meshing. The mesh type is unstructured, and the element number is 168367.

Pulsatile Blood FlowPulsatile Blood FlowPulsatile Blood Flow

CFD Simulation

Critical assumptions:

  • The solver type is assumed Pressure Based.
  • Time formulation is assumed unsteady.
  • Gravity effects are neglected.

The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution.

Viscous Laminar
Fluid Definition method Costume defined
Material name blood
Density 1060 kg/m3
viscosity 0.003 kg/m.s
Boundary conditions
Inlet Type  Unsteady Velocity inlet
UDF on
Velocity magnitude 0.33*sin(10t)
Solver configurations
Pressure-velocity coupling Scheme SIMPLE
Spatial discretization Gradient Least square cell-based
Pressure Standard
Momentum Second order Upwind
K First order Upwind
Epsilon First order Upwind

Results and discussion

Simulation solver in this project is unsteady, and the results shown here are in the flow time equal to 0.162s, which represents the peak value for the velocity function. The inlet’s blood mass flow rate and each outlet are equal to 0.001570178 and 0.00078576 kg/s, respectively. The blood pressure in the inlet is equal to 250 Pa, which is approximately equal to 1.87515 mmHg. It is worth mentioning that large arteries in the human body blood pressure vary between 120 and 80 mmHg. One of the most exciting results of this project is the determination of prone regions of artery wall rupture.

As seen from the pressure contour at flow time equal to 0.16s, the blood pressure on the bifurcation tip, where two flow streams are diverging from each other, reaches high values equal to 125Pa is half the Pressure of the fluid at the inlet. Another interesting conclusion to make from the results is the regions that are most likely to form stenosis. In literature, areas with low Wall Shear Stress (WSS) are most likely to form stenosis. As shown in the figure illustrating the WSS values, the most likely region for stenosis formation is the tip of bifurcation.

There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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