Stall Investigation Over a Wing, ANSYS Fluent CFD Simulation Training
In this study, we employed a wing plane airfoil and evaluated the stall angle using a CFD solver.
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An airfoil is a streamlined shape that is capable of generating significantly more lift compared to its drag. Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with a symmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces.
In this study, we employed a wing plane airfoil and evaluated the stall angle using a CFD solver. Also, the air is assumed to be incompressible and isothermal. The geometry is a 3-meter airfoil inside a 60-meter wind tunnel. Also, the maximum speed of 10 m/s is selected for the inlet.
Geometry and Mesh
As a numerical study, the initial step towards the modeling is the production of the CAD geometry. We consider the blue face as the inlet of the domain while the red face as the outlet.
For the current problem, we generate a mesh count of 3,181,472 elements to represent the geometry. Regarding the quality of the mesh, the maximum skewness of 0.95 with an average of 0.29 is satisfactory. In addition, for an interested reader, we depicted the quality distribution of mesh as below. Also, we added 5 layers for our prism elements to accurately calculate the boundary layer. Finally, we performed the meshing operation via ANSYS-Meshing software.
CFD Simulation Settings
When we import the mesh into the ANSYS-FLUENT solver, the calculation procedure could be started. The details of the solution setup are as follows:
Table (1)- Solver Settings
|Zone:||fluid zone: Rectangular Box: default|
|Boundary conditions:||Blade Walls: No-slip
Inlet: velocity inlet: 10 m/s
Outlet: pressure outlet
|Pressure interpolation scheme:||Second-Order|
|Relaxation:||Default, Number of Iterations = 500|
|Initialization:||Standard > from inlet|
|Fluid:||Air – constant properties
Density: 1.225 kg/(m3)
Viscosity: 0.001003 (Pa.s)
|Monitor:||Drag Value of Plane wall in X-direction
Lift Value of Plane wall in Y-direction
Results and Discussions
After we converge the solution, we could obtain the results through post-processing. Meanwhile, as an assurance for a valid convergence, the drag and Y-plus values were monitored during the solution iterations. This study decided that the solution is converged when the drag and lift forces reached a constant rate and the residuals were below 10-10 values.
Afterward, the results regarding the pressure and the velocity field are depicted in the figures. Again, the maximum value of velocity was found at the top surface of the airfoil, while the maximum value of pressure was at the leading-edge where the velocity was minimum. Additionally, the streamlines illustrate the quality of the flow streams resolved in the wake section, which is the core challenge of aerodynamic simulation and brings insight into the problem.
We rotated our current airfoil by the angle of 5 from zero to 45 degrees to identify the stall angle. By doing so, both the drag and lift values were increased until the angle of 22.5 degrees, when the lift value started to decrease. The noted was found to be the stall angle and corresponded to the maximum lift value.
There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.