Truck Aerodynamic, Container Effect Study, ANSYS Fluent Simulation Training

4.5 (2 reviews)


This project aims to investigate and analyze the drag force on the truck and compare it in two cases of with and without container.

This product includes a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie.

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Problem Description

Aerodynamics is the science that studies moving objects in the air or airflow around objects. When airflow passes through an object at a certain speed, it has different effects on that object. These include aerodynamic forces, boundary layers, and noise. To calculate aerodynamic parameters, fluid governing equations such as the Navier-Stokes equation in computational fluid dynamics should be studied numerically. Aerodynamics is a part of mechanics that is very important in car design. This is even more important when designing a truck; Because these cars have more weight, the air resistance in their movement should be reduced as much as possible to have better forward movement. Drag force means air resistance to forward motion and is one of the most important forces to be considered.

The aerodynamic CFD simulation of the truck and the drag force calculation helps us have a good prediction of different forces, especially the drag force around the truck. This directly impacts the fuel consumption of the truck and is therefore important from an energy and environmental perspective.

In this report, the project results will be presented to be discussed, analyzed, and concluded. This project aims to investigate and analyze the drag force on the truck and compare it in two cases of with and without container. Descriptions of geometry, meshing, boundary conditions, fluid properties, yplus (Y+) criterion, and results are given in order. In both modes, speed, pressure, and drag force will be examined, and we introduce the best possible mode in terms of drag reduction.

Geometry & Mesh

First, the geometry of the truck is designed in Solidworks software, and in Design Modeler software. The geometry is prepared to create meshing and name selection, then it is implemented in ANSYS Meshing software.


We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software. At first we use tetrahedral and then polyhedral mesh in Fluent, which has fewer cells and better quality.


The types of three-dimensional elements used in these meshing are tetrahedra and polyhedral, which are shown in the figure below.


The type of proper mesh is considered to achieve faster convergence, more accurate results, and prevent numerical divergence.

The mesh type can be divided into the following three categories:

  1. structured
  2. unstructured
  3. hybrid

In structured mesh, there is an iterative pattern that specifies the position of each node. Whereas in an unstructured type, all nodes are defined unpredictably, and there is no specific order in the mesh. A node is surrounded by the same number of nodes in a structured mesh, while such a need does not exist in unstructured grids.

Mesh Quality



orthogonality quality


Aspect ratio


The element size is equal to 3404174 and 5536973 for truck without and with container, respectively.

Boundary Conditions

B.C Name B.C Type Magnitude
inlet Velocity inlet 10 m/s
outlet Pressure outlet 0
side Symmetry
Truck Wall
ground wall
sky Symmetry


turbulence model k-w sst standard wall
pressure and momentum coupling simple
gradient discretization Less squares cell based
pressure discretization PRESTO
momentum discretization second order upwind
K discretization second order upwind
w discretization second order upwind

Fluid Properties

unit magnitude air properties
Kg/(m^3) 1.225 density
Kg/(m*s) 1.086*10e-6 viscosity


Total cantiner Viscous truck Viscous cantiner truck Drag coefficient
2.3498 0.02826353 0.083966507 0. 63589 1.7139 Truck and cantiner
2.2761   0.026509008 2.2761 Truck

Following figure shows the Cp diagram on the center line of the truck in terms of location X.



The simulation and investigation of the flow comparing the two modes of trucks with and without containers have been done. The results show that the drag force is less in the absence of the container than in the presence of it. This means that it is better to move the truck without the container. Of course, if the problem is done locally in the two parts of the back of the truck and the back of the container, the presence of the container will delay the separation of flow in the back of the truck.

On the other hand, the delay in separation causes the flow from the end of the container to cause less drag due to the smaller angle than the edge of the roof of the new truck. The images related to the flow lines in the back of the truck and behind the container show that the intensity of the vortices is effective from the angle of the top edge of the truck in the back of the truck in empty truck condition. This result can also be seen in the pressure coefficient diagram for comparing the two.

There are a Mesh file and a comprehensive Training Movie that presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

2 reviews for Truck Aerodynamic, Container Effect Study, ANSYS Fluent Simulation Training

  1. Caitlyn

    Hi. At the beginning of the tutorial, it was shown that the transient solver is selected, but at the run calculation tab, it was shown that a steady solver type is selected. Would you please explain that?

    • melika maysoori

      Hi, Caitlyn. Thank you very much for your attention. This is explained in the tutorial video because this product was originally supposed to be simulated in transient. This product is going to be modified and updated. However, you can do the simulation in transient. In the general section, select the transient mode instead of the steady mode, and then set the time step in the run calculation section. Let us know if you need more information. 😉

  2. Jacob E.

    I didn’t understand how to convert 3D elements into polyhedral elements. Where is the convert tab?

    • melika maysoori

      Do not worry. I’m gonna explain u. :). To convert the entire domain of your mesh, use the Mesh / Polyhedra / Convert Domain menu. ( In fluent software). But note that conversion of a mesh to polyhedra only applies to 3D meshes that contain tetrahedral and/or wedge/prism cells. Hexahedral cells remain unchanged during conversion.

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