# Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil CFD Simulation

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The present project concerns the simulation of airflow around a NACA 0015 airfoil and MHD effect.

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## Description

## Airfoil

The cross section of an airplane wing, wind turbine blade and helicopter, etc is called airfoil. Airfoils can have different geometries. Different airfoils are also used to build an airplane wing. The proper choice of these airfoils for different applications depends on the aerodynamic properties of the airfoil. The following figure shows some examples of airfoils.

## Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil Project Description

The present issue concerns the simulation of airflow around a NACA 0015 airfoil. This airfoil is a symmetrical airfoil that does not produce a lift force at zero attack angle, and we investigate the lift coefficient of this airfoil at different attack angles with and without magnetic (MHD) force. In this problem, we study the separation and the maximum angle of attack where the separation does not occur. By applying the magnetic force (MHD), the separation happens at the larger angle of attack.

## Assumption

We use several assumptions for the present simulation:

- The simulation is Steady-State.
- The solver is Pressure-Based.

## Geometry & Mesh of Airfoil

The present 2-D modeling is done by Design Modeler software. The coordinates of the airfoil points are imported in the software, and the solution domain is a circle of 10 to 12 times of the radius of the airfoil chord. To solve this problem, after defining the domain, an unstructured triangular mesh has been applied around the airfoil. For the boundary layer flow, applying finer meshing which departs from airfoil is gradually getting bigger in order to make it easier to solve and reduce the computational time.

## CFD Simulation

Models (Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil) |
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k-epsilon | Viscous model | ||

Standard | k-epsilon model | ||

RNG | Standard Wall Function | ||

off | Energy | ||

Boundary conditions (Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil) |
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velocity inlet | Inlet type | ||

27.45283226 m/s | x-velocity | ||

3 9.992013787 m/s | y-velocity | ||

wall | Walls type | ||

No slip | Shear condition | ||

Solution Methods (Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil) |
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Coupled | |
Pressure-velocity coupling | |

Satndard | pressure | Spatial discretization | |

First order upwind | momentum | ||

Second order upwind | energy | ||

Second order upwind | turbulent kinetic energy | ||

Second order upwind | turbulent dissipation rate | ||

Initialization (Magnetic Force Effect on an Airfoil) |
|||

Standard | Initialization method |

### Boundary Condition

A part of the middle of the solution domain, which is the airfoil, is specified and its wall is divided into two upper and lower portions by which the non-slip boundary wall condition is applied, in which the UDF magnetic force is applied (without using the MHD module) to the airfoil in the x-direction. The combination between the fluid flow field and the magnetic field is understood on the basis of two basic effects, including the induction of electric current due to the conduction of conductive material in a magnetic field, and the influence of the Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of the magnetic field and the electric current.

In this effect, the Lorentz force is investigated whose main relation is J = σ (E + U × B) which is used in the UDF to apply the magnetic field. The velocity inlet is applied to the input of the velocity inlet domain, where the input velocity is set as components and is defined in two components along the x and y directions.

### Outputs

One of the aims of this problem is to observe the flow separation on the airfoil and its effect on the force and lift coefficient at different attack angles. To get the lift coefficient in the report definition section in the Force report menu, we activate the lift and we can extract the lift force for the upper and lower parts of the airfoil.

### Reference Value

Since the purpose of the problem is to study the fluid behavior and lift force calculation only in the specific airflow space, we select the airflow around the airfoil as the reference zone.

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

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