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Ventilation and Heat Transfer Considering Solar Radiation

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The problem simulates the ventilation, air circulation, heat transfer, and solar radiation in a room.

 

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Description

Room Ventilation Project Description

The problem simulates the ventilation, air circulation, and heat transfer in a room. The heat emitted by people, objects, and electrical equipment inside the room. A man, a computer, and two lamps are modeled inside the room; So that man with a density of 985 kg.m-3, the specific heat capacity of 3500 j.kg-1.K-1, and the thermal conductivity of 0.5 Wm-1.K-1 are defined.

Also, the computer is made of plastic with a density of 913 kg.m-3, a specific heat capacity of 1000 j.kg-1.K-1, and thermal conductivity of 0.2 Wm-1.K-1, and each lamp is made of glass with a density of 5000 kg.m-3, a specific heat capacity of 0.84 j.kg-1.K-1, and thermal conductivity of 0.96 Wm-1.K-1. Man, computers, and two lamps are assumed to be independent indoor heat sources.

Room Ventilation Project Description

In fact, the thermal energy from human activity, the thermal energy from a working computer, and the heat energy emitted by light bulbs are known to be a source of heat production, the purpose of which is to investigate the effect of constant air circulation inside the room. The man as a heat source has a constant amount of heat flux of 1928 W.m-3, the computer has a constant amount of heat flux of 7285.7 W.m-3.

Also, each lamp has a constant value of 26356.5 W.m-3. There is also a glass window on one of the walls of this room to investigate the effect of solar radiation. In order to better heat transfer by solar radiation, the glass surface is located face to the solar rays. Also, a volume is defined below this room where there is airflow inside. The room sidewalls and its bottom have convection heat transfer with the outside environment.

Thus, the ambient air temperature is assumed to be 300 K and the convection heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be 19 W.m-2.K-1.

Geometry & Mesh

The present 3-D model is drawn using the Design Modeler software. The present model consists of a room with a volume under it. Room space includes a human, a computer, two lamps, other objects, and a special window is designed on one of its sidewalls. The following figure shows the geometry.

ventilation

The meshing has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is unstructured and the element number is 309156. The mesh accuracy in the areas adjacent to the edges is very high. The following figure shows the mesh.

ventilation

Room Ventilation CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is steady
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is ignored.

A summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution is given in the following table:

(ventilation) Models
Viscous model k-epsilon
k-epsilon model standard
near-wall treatment standard wall function
Radiation model Solar ray tracing
direct solar irradiation 1423 W.m-2
diffuse solar irradiation 200 W.m-2
Energy on
(ventilation) Boundary conditions
Inlet Mass flow inlet
mass flow rate 35 kg.s-1
temperature 300 K
radiation participates in solar ray tracing
Sidewalls & plate Wall
wall motion stationary wall
convection heat transfer coefficient 19 W.m-2.K-1
free stream temperature 300 K
(ventilation) radiation solar boundary conditions participates in solar ray tracing
BC type opaque
Glass window   Wall
wall motion stationary wall
convection heat transfer coefficient 19 W.m-2.K-1
free stream temperature 300 K
radiation solar boundary conditions participates in solar ray tracing
BC type semi-transparent
Outlet   Pressure outlet
gauge pressure 0 Pascal
radiation participates in solar ray tracing
(ventilation) Solution Methods
Pressure-velocity coupling   SIMPLE
Spatial discretization pressure second-order
momentum second-order upwind
turbulent kinetic energy first-order upwind
turbulent dissipation rate first-order upwind
energy second-order upwind
(ventilation) Initialization
Initialization method   Hybrid

Results

At the end of the solution process, the velocity, temperature, and pressure contours, as well as pathlines and velocity vectors are obtained.

 

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

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