Water Turbine (Horizontal Axis) CFD Simulation
Water turbines are turbomachines that convert the kinetic energy of the water flow or the potential energy of the water altitude difference, into a rotational motion.
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Water Turbine Problem Description
The present study investigates the water flow on the turbine blades so that the purpose of the problem is to investigate the distribution of velocity and pressure on the blades wall. There are two areas around the blades, including a cylindrical area just around the blades and a large area around the cylinder. The flow of water in the large outer space behaves as a normal flow, while in the cylindrical region around the blades, the rotational flow is caused by the rotational motion of the blades.
To simulate the present problem, several assumptions are considered:
The simulation is Steady State. Because the present turbine is of horizontal axis type and therefore time will not affect drag and lift forces.
The solver is Pressure-Based.
The Gravity Force is ignored.
Geometry and Mesh of the Water Turbine
The present model is designed in 3-D form so that the section of the turbine blades is a S814-type airfoil whose coordinates are obtained from the Airfoil Tools website and output in the form of a notepad file. Since the airfoil cross section of the blades decreases or increases with different scales at a given scale, excel is used to define the coordinates of the blades at different points. Each airfoil section is then plotted in SOLIDWORKS software at appropriate angles and coordinates and then inserted into the Design Modeler software to design the blades and axis of the turbine. In the Design Modeler software, we create a rotational water flow around the turbine blades and a large space designed as a normal water flow space.
An Unstructured mesh was performed using ANSYS Meshing software. To increase the accuracy of the modeling, the boundary layer mesh on the surfaces of the turbine blades was used and the number of cells produced was 4270222.
Water Turbine CFD Simulation
Here is a summary of the steps in the table to define and solve the problem:
|Velocity inlet||Inlet type|
|Pressure outlet||Outlet type|
|0 Pa||gauge pressure|
|stationary wall||all walls|
|Solution Methods (water turbine)|
|Second-order upwind||pressure||Spatial discretization|
|Second-order upwind||turbulent kinetic energy|
|Second-order upwind||turbulent dissipation rate|
|Initialization (water turbine)|
|-1 m.s-1||velocity (z)|
Frame Motion Method
The purpose of the present simulation is to investigate the effect of water flow on turbine blades. In this case, the turbine blades rotate at a rotational speed of 191 rpm and the water in the area surrounding the blades is stationary. Using the above method, the blades can be assumed to be constant and the flow of water around the blades is assumed to be a rotating zone with the same rotational speed of 191 rpm around the Z axis. Also, since the simulation is Steady State, the Mesh Motion option is disabled because it is used when the time effect must be applied to the problem solving and the purpose of the problem is to define the rotational speed for the blade.
All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.