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NACA 0012 Airfoil (Compressible Flow) CFD Simulation

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This project is going to simulate a NACA 0012 airfoil in the compressible airflow field.


This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Project Description of Airflow around a NACA 0012 Airfoil

This project is going to simulate an airfoil in the airflow field. Geometric defining parameters include chord line, angle of attack, leading-edge, and trailing edge. The direction of the airflow into the airfoil body is defined by the angle of attack (the angle between the chord and the horizontal direction of the airflow velocity). In the present case, the attack angle is 5 degrees; thus, the horizontal component of the airflow direction is defined as 0.996 (cos5) and the vertical component is equal to 0.087 (sin5). The purpose of this project is to investigate the behavior of airflow and the pressure distribution around the airfoil, as well as to study the drag and lift forces.

The Mach number is equal to the ratio of the speed of an object in a fluid to the sound speed in the same fluid in which that object moves. For example, the sound speed in the air with a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius is 343 meters per second. In general, simulation of an airfoil requires the definition of a far-field boundary condition, and therefore the Mach number for the flow field must be defined, the value of which in the present case is 0.6.

In general, the airfoil is the same as the plane cross-section of the wing, the wind turbine blade, the helicopter, and so on. However, it should be noted that for the construction of an aircraft wing, different airfoils can be used, and the choice of airfoil type in different applications depends on the aerodynamic characteristics. The following figure gives a schematic of the structure of an asymmetric and its defining geometric parameters.


Geometry & Mesh

The 2-D geometry of the present model is drawn using the Design Modeler software. First, the coordinates of the points in the wall forming of the desired airfoil are imported to the software, and then, using the called points, it is completely drawn in the software. The far-field boundary required for the analysis of airflow behavior around the airfoil is then drawn around the airfoil according to the relevant standards. The figure below shows an overview of the model’s geometry.


The meshing of the present model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is structured and the element number is equal to 35,000. The figure below shows an overview of the meshing.


Airflow around an Airfoil CFD Simulation

To simulate the present model, we consider several assumptions, which are:

  • The density-based solver is performed because the airflow is considered to be compressible.
  • Simulation has been performed in both fluid and thermal (heat transfer) states.
  • The present model is steady.
  • We do not consider the effect of gravity on the fluid.

The following is a summary of the steps for defining the problem and its solution:

Models (airfoil)
spalart-allmarasViscous model
vorticity-basedspalart-allmaras production
Boundary conditions (airfoil)
pressure far-fieldFar-field
0 Pagauge pressure
0.6Mach number(airfoil)
0.996x-component of flow direction
0.087y-component of flow direction
300 Ktemperature
wallAirfoil’s wall
0 W.m-2 (isolated)heat flux
Solution Methods (airfoil)
Implicit Solution methods
first-order upwindflowSpatial discretization
first-order upwindmodified turbulent viscosity
Initialization (airfoil)
StandardInitialization method
207.4197 m.s-1x-velocity
18.11798 m.s-1y-velocity
0 pascalgauge pressure
300 Ktemperature

Airfoil CFD Simulation Results

At the end of the solution process, we obtain two-dimensional contours of pressure, velocity, temperature, density, and Mach number, as well as two-dimensional pathlines.


All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

There are some free products to check the service quality.




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