Cohesion and Adhesion on the Surface of Two Cylinders, ANSYS Fluent Training

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In this project, two phase flow of water and air flowing over two cylinders is simulated.

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Cohesion and Adhesion Project description

In this project, two phase flow of water and air flowing over two cylinders considering cohesion and adhesion is simulated by ANSYS Fluent software. The water will enter the computational domain with a velocity of 2.6m/s and it flows over the cylinders’ surfaces. The realizable k-epsilon model is exploited to solve fluid flow equations and VOF multi phase model is used to investigate the phase interactions.

Geometry and mesh

The geometry of this model is designed in ANSYS design modeler® and is meshed in ANSYS meshing®. The mesh type used for this geometry is structured and smaller mesh is used in the proximity of cylinders’ walls. The total element number is 8048.

Two Phase Flow

Two-Phase Flow

Cohesion and Adhesion CFD Simulation Settings

The key assumptions considered in this project are:

  • Simulation is done using pressure-based solver.
  • The present simulation and its results are steady.
  • The effect of gravity has been taken into account and is equal to -9.81 m/s2 in Y direction.

The applied settings are summarized in the following table.

(Two-Phase Flow) Models
Viscous model k-epsilon
Model Realizable
Wall treatment Standard wall functions
Multiphase VOF
Body force formulation Implicit body force
Surface tension Coeff. 73.5 dyn/cm
Phase 1 air
Phase 2 water
(Two-Phase Flow) Boundary conditions
Ambient Pressure inlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
Water volume fraction 0
back Pressure inlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
(VOF) Water volume fraction 0
Inlet Velocity inlet
Velocity magnitude 2.6 m/s
Water volume fraction 1
Outlets Pressure outlet
Gauge pressure 0 Pa
Walls stationary
Contact angle 90
(Two-Phase Flow) Solution Methods
Pressure-velocity coupling PISO
Spatial discretization pressure PRESTO!
Volume fraction compressive
momentum second order upwind
energy second order upwind
Turbulent kinetic energy first order upwind
Turbulent dissipation rate first order upwind
(Two-Phase Flow) Initialization
Initialization method   Standard
gauge pressure 0 Pa
velocity (x,y) (0,0) m/s
water volume fraction 0.01182033
Turbulent kinetic energy 0.000191773 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 0.02866952 m2/s3

Cohesion and Adhesion Results

The contours of pressure, velocity, streamlines, etc. are presented.


  1. Avatar Of Dr. Gavin Langosh

    Dr. Gavin Langosh

    The training was insightful and comprehensive. The step-by-step approach with detailed settings made it easier to understand the intricacies involved in simulating cohesion and adhesion effects on the surface of two cylinders. Excellent use of the VOF multiphase model.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you so much for your positive feedback! We’re thrilled to hear that our training material on cohesion and adhesion simulation was helpful for you. We aim to provide clear and thorough guidance to ensure a deep understanding of the CFD processes. If you need any further assistance or have more questions in the future, please do not hesitate to reach out.

  2. Avatar Of Dr. Janice Goodwin Iv

    Dr. Janice Goodwin IV

    Is it visually possible to distinguish the effects of cohesion and adhesion on the flowing water’s interactions with the cylinders’ surfaces in the results?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Yes, the simulation results include detailed contours of pressure and velocity, as well as streamlines that visually depict the behavior and interaction of water with the cylinder surfaces, highlighting the effects of cohesion and adhesion.

  3. Avatar Of Ms. Amanda Nikolaus I

    Ms. Amanda Nikolaus I

    I was absolutely captivated by the clarity of the results, especially the smooth mesh around the cylinders that obviously took a great deal of consideration. Well done!

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your positive feedback! We’re thrilled to hear that you appreciated the attention to detail in the meshing and the clarity of the results. Your satisfaction is our priority, and we’re glad we met your expectations.

  4. Avatar Of Jerod Rice

    Jerod Rice

    The training material looks incredibly thorough! Could an absolute beginner in CFD benefit from this course, or is it intended for users with intermediate knowledge?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your interest in the course! This training course is designed in such a way that it caters to both absolute beginners as well as those with intermediate knowledge. It includes fundamental concepts and gradually progresses to more complex simulations, ensuring a comprehensive learning experience for all participants.

  5. Avatar Of Vivian Lebsack

    Vivian Lebsack

    This training seems quite comprehensive. However, I was wondering if there will be content covering how to set the contact angle for different materials in the simulation?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      In this training, the contact angle set for the cylinders is 90 degrees, which is a common assumption for a neutral wetting surface. If you need to set different contact angles for various materials, this can be done under the ‘wall’ boundary conditions in ANSYS Fluent. You can specify different contact angles in the ‘phase’ tab for each wall boundary corresponding to your materials. The training will guide you through the process based on the principles underlying the cohesion and adhesion phenomena.

  6. Avatar Of Kayleigh Aufderhar I

    Kayleigh Aufderhar I

    Exactly how does the software handle the contact angle boundary condition on the cylinders’ surfaces to simulate cohesion and adhesion?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      In the simulation, the contact angle boundary condition is set to a value of 90 degrees on the surface of the cylinders. This determines the interaction of the multiphase fluid flow with the surface. ANSYS Fluent uses this boundary condition to calculate the interface forces accurately, capturing the balance between cohesion within the fluid and the adhesion to the solid surface.

  7. Avatar Of Roy Runolfsdottir

    Roy Runolfsdottir

    The training mentions the use of a ‘contact angle’ of 90 degrees. How does this specific angle influence the simulation of cohesion and adhesion on the surface of the cylinders?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Adopting a contact angle of 90 degrees signifies that the surface of the cylinders is considered to be neutral in terms of wettability; hence neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic. In practical terms, when water comes in contact with the surface, this angle determines the shape and behavior of the water droplets. The simulation hierarchy employs this setting to gauge the interaction between the water and cylinder surfaces, which concomitantly affects the distribution and flow patterns expected in the scenarios presented.

  8. Avatar Of Cornell Schmidt

    Cornell Schmidt

    I’m intrigued by the cohesion and adhesion effects shown on the cylinders’ surfaces. Can you elaborate on how adhesion is modeled and its tangible effects on the simulation outcomes?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Adhesion in ANSYS Fluent is typically modeled using the contact angle parameter, where a contact angle of 90 degrees signifies neutral behavior in terms of hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity. Adhesion influences the distribution and behavior of the water phase on the cylinder surfaces in the simulation. It dictates how the water interacts with the cylinder surface, affecting the flow pattern and phase distribution around the cylinders. The tangible effects include changes in local flow dynamics, such as velocity profiles and pressure distribution, which are critical for understanding the characteristics of multiphase flow around the objects.

  9. Avatar Of Darien Mann

    Darien Mann

    I’m fascinated by the simulation of two-phase flow, particularly how cohesion and adhesion effects are modeled around the cylinders. Can you elaborate on how the contact angle setting impacts the adhesion behavior in the results?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      The contact angle setting in the simulation is crucial for modeling the wetting behavior between the fluid and the surface of the cylinders. A contact angle of 90 degrees implies that the surface is neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic, representing a neutral wetting condition where the adhesive and cohesive forces are balanced. This setting influences the shape and behavior of water as it comes in contact with the cylinder surfaces and affects the fluid distribution in the simulation results, especially at the interface between water and air.

  10. Avatar Of Dianna Schmeler

    Dianna Schmeler

    The training content was immensely helpful. The progression from basic concepts to the complex interplay of surface tension, coupled with the use of both pressure and velocity inlets, made the theory behind cohesion and adhesion very clear.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your positive feedback! It’s great to hear that our training materials effectively clarified the complex theory behind cohesion and adhesion for you. We aim to present content that builds understanding step by step, and we’re delighted to know it’s appreciated!

  11. Avatar Of Melany Bashirian

    Melany Bashirian

    In the results, how do cohesion and adhesion affect the air-water interaction around the cylinders?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      In the results, cohesion and adhesion properties influence how the water droplets coalesce and stick to the surface of the cylinders, as well as how they interact with the airflow around the cylinders. One may observe differences in flow patterns, pressures, and velocities due to these effects.

  12. Avatar Of Prof. Kade Ward Md

    Prof. Kade Ward MD

    The selection of the contact angle is very interesting! Could you explain the impact of the contact angle on the results in this simulation, specifically relating to cohesion and adhesion effects?

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      The contact angle in this simulation defines how the water droplets interact with the cylinder surfaces—essentially representing the wetting properties of the surfaces. A contact angle of 90 degrees is indicative of neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic behavior. This neutrality impacts the cohesion within the water, which is the attractive force between water molecules, and adhesion, which is the attractive force between the water molecules and the cylinder walls. The choice of contact angle therefore alters the fluid’s wetting properties, potentially affecting the flow behavior around the cylinders as well as capillary effects, which can be significant in multiphase simulations like this one.

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