Condensation inside a Shell and Tube Condenser

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  • The problem numerically simulates the Condensation inside a Shell and Tube Condenser using ANSYS Fluent software.
  • We design the 3-D model with the Design Modeler software.
  • We mesh the model with ANSYS Meshing software, and the element number equals 342486.
  • We use the Mixture Multiphase model to define water and vapor.
  • We define a mass transfer by the evaporation-condensation method.


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Condensation inside a Shell and Tube Condenser CFD Simulation, ANSYS Fluent Training

The present problem simulates the condensation process inside a shell and tube condenser using ANSYS Fluent software.

The process of condensation means the conversion of a fluid from a gaseous phase to a liquid phase; This means that when the liquid vapor reaches a saturation temperature, it turns into a liquid. The heat that causes a phase change between a liquid and a gas is called latent heat.

The saturation temperature for the condensation process occurrence is 46 ºC, and the time-frequency coefficient of this mass transfer is defined as 0.1.

In this modeling, the condensation occurs inside a shell and tube condenser. Thus, the flow of cooling water flows through the condenser pipes (tube) with a flow rate of 5 kg/s and a temperature of 20 ºC.

The flow of water vapor inside the shell’s interior with a speed of 10 m/s and in the saturation temperature is equivalent to 46 ºC.

Therefore, saturated steam undergoes a condensation process due to contact with the outer surface of the inner cold pipes, and its temperature drops to a temperature below the saturation temperature. As a result, liquid water is produced.

The present model is designed in three dimensions using Design Modeler software. The model is a shell & tube type condenser heat exchanger designed horizontally. A shell with two baffles is designed to carry hot water, and four rows of pipes are placed inside the shell to carry cold water.

Due to the symmetrical structure of the heat exchanger, the model is semi-drawn. We carry out the model’s meshing using ANSYS Meshing software. The mesh type is unstructured. The element number is 342486.

Condensation Methodology

In this simulation, the vapor stream of saturated water is converted to liquid water at saturation temperature. Since two different phases occur in the solution process, it is necessary to define a multiphase flow.

For this simulation, a multiphase mixture model is used; Because the two phases of liquid water and water vapor are thoroughly mixed together. Also, to define condensation, a Mass Transfer in the form of evaporation-condensation must be defined.

Condensation Conclusion

At the end of the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to pressure, velocity, temperature, water vapor volume fraction, liquid water volume fraction, and mass transfer rate between water and steam or condensation are obtained.

After contact with the cold water pipes and heat transfer between the shell and the cold pipes, the contours show that the hot steam stream undergoes a temperature drop, and its temperature drops below the saturation temperature.

As a result, this process causes the phase change process, water vapor condensation, and water production in the condenser.


  1. Avatar Of Arlene Nicolas V

    Arlene Nicolas V

    I am thrilled with how precisely the simulation captured the condensation process, and I can visibly understand the phase change dynamics through the contours shown. A job well done by the MR CFD team!

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for taking the time to leave such a positive review. We’re pleased to know that our simulation on the condensation process in a shell and tube condenser was able to clearly demonstrate the phase change dynamics and was helpful for your understanding. If you have any more feedback or need further assistance, we’re always here to help!

  2. Avatar Of Ms. Joannie Padberg

    Ms. Joannie Padberg

    This training module seems really comprehensive! It helped me get a solid grasp on the principles of condensation within a condenser system. Good job on offering such detailed explanations, making it easier to understand complex concepts.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      We’re thrilled to hear that our training module met your expectations and provided you with a clear understanding of the condensation process within a shell and tube condenser. Thank you for the positive feedback!

  3. Avatar Of Miss Pearlie Mills

    Miss Pearlie Mills

    This product sounds comprehensive. The condensation demonstration within the shell and tube condenser shows an intricate process explained seamlessly through the simulation. Well done with the combination of theory and practical analysis!

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your kind words! We are thrilled to hear that the simulation was explained seamlessly and that you recognized the effort to integrate theory with practical analysis. Your feedback is valuable to us, and we look forward to providing more quality CFD learning content.

  4. Avatar Of Malinda Schmidt

    Malinda Schmidt

    This training for simulating a shell and tube condenser in ANSYS Fluent has exceeded my expectations. The detailed explanations provided made it very clear how the condensation process and the mass transfer were set up and simulated. The temperature drop below saturation and the visualization of water production were especially helpful in understanding the effectiveness of such a heat exchanger.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your positive feedback! We are thrilled to hear that our training on the shell and tube condenser simulation using ANSYS Fluent met your expectations and provided clear insight into the condensation process. It’s gratifying to know the detailed visualizations enhanced your understanding of the heat exchanger’s effectiveness. We appreciate you taking the time to share your experience.

  5. Avatar Of Rickey Pagac

    Rickey Pagac

    I’m impressed with the level-of-detail in this study! Fantastic explanation of the condensation process in the shell and tube condenser. The methodology behind using a multiphase mixture model for accurately capturing the phase change is commendable. It’s clear that a lot of expertise went into this simulation.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your kind words! We’re thrilled to hear you appreciated the in-depth analysis and methodology used in the Condensation inside a Shell and Tube Condenser simulation. Your feedback motivates us to continue delivering high-quality CFD simulation training. If you have any further questions or need more information, feel free to reach out.

  6. Avatar Of Luis Monahan

    Luis Monahan

    What an engaging tutorial! The detailed explanation of the condensation process and methodology helped me understand the physical principles and ANSYS Fluent settings. The practical results like temperature and phase change contours are precisely what I needed to grasp for my project on industrial refrigeration systems. Thank you for an outstanding educational experience.

    • Avatar Of Mr Cfd Support

      MR CFD Support

      Thank you for your kind words! We’re thrilled to hear that our training material was helpful and that it contributed positively to your project on industrial refrigeration systems. It’s always our goal to provide clear and useful content that aids in understanding complex simulations. If you have any further questions or need additional guidance in the future, please feel free to reach out.

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