Slot Effect on Wing Aerodynamic Performance, ANSYS Fluent Simulation Training

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In this project, steady air flow over an airfoil (NACA4421) with a slot on the leading edge is investigated.

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Problem Description

In this project, steady airflow over an airfoil (NACA4421) is investigated. Airfoil has a shape deformity (slot), which separates it into two different parts. A slot in the airfoil industry is used to optimize airfoil performance, including increased lift force. Airfoil attack angle is equal to zero degrees. Air enters the domain with a velocity equal to 10 m/s. Drag and lift coefficients of this airfoil with zero attack angle are equal to 0.0755 and 0.3764, respectively.

Geometry & Mesh (Airfoil with Slot)

The fluid domain’s geometry is designed in Design Modeler software, and the computational grid is generated using ANSYS Meshing. The mesh type is unstructured, and the element number is 260000.


Solver configuration (Airfoil with Slot)

Critical assumptions:

  • Solver type is assumed Pressure Based.
  • Time formulation is assumed Steady.
  • Gravity effects are neglected.

The following table represents a summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution.


Viscous Turbulent model Standard K-epsilon

(enhanced wall treatment)

(pressure gradient effects)

Fluid Definition method Fluent Database
Material name Air
Boundary conditions
Mass flow inlet Type Velocity inlet
Velocity magnitude 10 m/s
Turbulent intensity 2%
Hydraulic diameter 30 m
Solver configurations
Pressure-velocity coupling Scheme SIMPLE
Spatial discretization Gradient Least square cell-based
Pressure PRESTO!
Momentum Second order Upwind
Turbulent kinetic energy first order Upwind
Turbulent dissipation rate first order Upwind
Initialization Gauge pressure 0 Pa
X velocity 3.090641 m/s
Y velocity -0.0004944867 m/s
Turbulent kinetic energy 0.06 m2/s2
Turbulent dissipation rate 0.001149978 m2/s3

Results & Discussion

We use NACA4421 airfoil as a standard airfoil in the aeronautics industries. In this project, the slot in the airfoil geometry causes a difference in drag and lift coefficients.

Drag and lift coefficients of this airfoil are calculated to be equal to 0.0755 and 0.3764, respectively. Drag and lift coefficients for NACA4421 airfoil without slot with zero attack angles are reported to be equal to 0.06 and 0.1, respectively. Both drag and lift coefficients are increased due to the presence of the slot.

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, the Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.


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