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Diesel Spray Ultra-High Injection CFD Simulation

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in this CFD project, Spray-induced air motion in single and twin ultra-high injection diesel sprays is validated by CFD simulation.

 

This ANSYS Fluent project includes CFD simulation files and a training movie.

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Description

Project Description of Diesel Spray Injection

The present problem simulates fuel injection through an injector into a chamber. This simulation is based on the information in the article “Spray-induced air motion in single and twin ultra-high injection diesel sprays” and its results are compared and validated with the results in the article. The fuel used in this model is diesel and its properties include density equal to 830 kg.m-3, specific heat capacity equal to 1680 j.kg-1.K-1, droplet surface strain equal to 0.0255 nm -1 and the viscosity is equal to 0.0027888 kg.m-1.s-1.

To simulate the spraying process, it is necessary to define a discrete phase flow within a continuous flow. Therefore, the discrete phase model (DPM) is used in the simulation. The behavior of discrete phase particles in the unsteady state is also defined and it is also assumed that the behavior of the particles is affected by the continuous flow (interaction with continues phase). The physical states defined for the discrete phase model include stochastic collision, which means that fuel particles collide with each other, coalescence, which means that fuel particles combine with each other, and breakup, which means the decay of fuel particles.

An injection process is also defined to define the fuel injection process. Thus, the fuel flow is injected into the chamber with a flow rate of 14 g.s-1, a velocity of 850.23 m.s-1 and a temperature of 298 K. The diameter of the fuel particles is considered to be 0.00016 m and the type of fuel injection into space is defined as single. The duration of the injection process in the time interval is equal to 0.001 s.

Geometry & Mesh

The present 3-D model is designed using Design Modeler software. The geometry of the model consists of a cylindrical chamber with a special cylindrical fuel injector nozzle on it. The cylindrical chamber is 0.08 m long and 0.06 m in diameter and the cylindrical nozzle is 0.0012 m long and 0.00008 m in diameter. The following figure shows a view of the geometry.

diesel spray diesel spray

The meshing of the model has been done using ANSYS Meshing software and the mesh type is structured. The element number is 675000. The following figure shows the mesh. diesel spray

CFD Simulation Setting

To simulate the present model, several assumptions are considered:

  • We perform a pressure-based solver.
  • The simulation is unsteady. Because, the purpose of the problem is to track the particles, over the time.
  • The gravity effect on the fluid is equal to -9.81 m.s-2 along the z-axis.

A summary of the defining steps of the problem and its solution is given in the following table:

Models (injection)
Viscousk-epsilon
k-epsilon modelstandard
near-wall treatmentstandard wall function
Discrete phase modelOn
interactioninteraction with continuous phase
particle treatmentunsteady particle tracking
track with fluid flow time step
physical modelsstochastic collision
coalescence
breakup
Injectionactive
particle typeInert
injection typesingle
point propertiestemperature298 K
velocity (z)-850.23 m.s-1
diameter0.00016 m
start time0 s
stop time0.001 s
total flow rate14 g.s-1
EnergyOn
Boundary conditions (injection)
Inlet-fuel
wall motionstationary wall
heat flux0 W.m-2
discrete phase conditionsescape
Wall solid
wall motionstationary wall
heat flux0 W.m-2
discrete phase conditionsreflect
Methods (injection)
Pressure-velocity couplingSIMPLE
pressurestandard
momentumfirst order upwind
densitysecond order upwind
energyfirst order upwind
Initialization (injection)
Initialization methodsStandard
velocity (x,y,z)0 m.s-1
temperature298 K
gauge pressure1270000 Pascal

Validation Result of Diesel Spray Injection

At the end of the solution process, the results of the present numerical study are compared and validated with the results of the laboratory (experimental results)of the mentioned article. Validation is based on Figure 3 of the article. Since the present simulation was performed in a time interval of 0.5 ms, the results of the numerical work were compared only in the first 0.5 ms. This simulation was performed at an injection pressure of 300 MPa, which according to the Bernoulli principle, the particle injection rate is considered to be 850.23 m.s-1.

The following figure shows a comparison chart of the results of the present work with the reference paper.

diesel spray

Also after the solution process, two-dimensional and three-dimensional contours related to velocity, DPM density, discrete phase model number and volume, and particle tracking in terms of residence time and diameter size are obtained.

 

All files, including Geometry, Mesh, Case & Data, are available in Simulation File. By the way, Training File presents how to solve the problem and extract all desired results.

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